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JOSIAIl  liOHiNBLOWER, 


AND   THE 


First  Steam -Engine  in  America, 


WITH    t-OME    NOTICES   OF   THE 


Schuyler  Ccpper  Mines  at  Second  River,  n,  J, 


AND    A 


Genealogy  of  the  Horkblower  Family. 

BY  WILLIAM  NELSON, 

Recording  Secretary  of  the  New  Jersey  Historical  Society. 


Head  before  the  Society,  at  NeicnrJc,  May  17,  1883. 


NEWARK,  N.  J.: 

daily  advertiser  printing  house. 

1883. 


JOSIAH    HOHNBLOWEH. 


THE 

NEW  YORK 

PUBLIC  LIBRARY 

Aster,  Lenox  and  TWen  , 
Foundations. 
18% 


/ 


C  C   'I  c  c  (.■ 


JOSIAH  HORNBLOWER, 

AND   THE    FIRST    STEAM-ENGINE    IX    AMERICA. 


*'Soiiie\vhal  back  from  the  village  street."  in  the  liiirying- 
groiuid  beside  the  venerable  Reformed  CJiureh  ;it  Belleville, 
New  Jersey,  stands  a  large  browiistone  slab,  thus  inseribt-d: 

IN 

M  E  M  O  K  V 

OF 

JOSIAH   HORNBLOWER,   Esqr 

who  departed  this  Life 

On  thk  2IST  OK  Janv  ad  1809 

Aged  7y  Years  10  Months 

and  29  Days. 

Josiah  ll(»ndih)\ver  was  born  in  Slaft'ordshire,  England, 
February  23,  K29,  N.  8.  His  father.  Joseph  Hornblower, 
was  even  at  tiiis  early  day  engaged  in  superintending  the 
coustruetion  of  steam-engines,  which  were  just  coming  into 
general  use  in  the  coal  mines  of  that  jiai't  of  England — now 
known  as  the  "  lilack  Country  "' — and  in  the  deep  tin  and 
copper  mines  of  Cornwall,  for  pumping  the  water  from  the 
dismal  depths  to  which  tlie  shafts  had  penetrated.  These 
engines,  then  known  as  '•lire-engines,"  were  designed  by 
Thonias  jSewcomen,  and  embodied  tlic  most  practical  appli- 
cation of  the  power  of  steam  that  had  \('t  been  seen,  being 
indeed  the  first  to  cope  successfully  with  the  problem  of  how 
to  clear  the  deep  mines  from  water.     It  is  said  that  a  patent 


4  JOSlAS    HORNBLOWER, 

was  granted  in  1705*  to  Newcomen,  in  connection  with  John 
Calley,  his  ])ai-tner,  and  Tiiomas  Savery,  who  had  received  a 
patent  himself  in  1G98  for  a  steam  pumping-engine,  and  some 
of  whose  ideas  were  incorporated  in  tlie  new  machine.  It  was 
not  until  1112  tliat  Xewcomen  and  his  associates  got  one  of 
their  engines  into  successful  operation  at  a  mine  near  AVolver- 
ham})ton.  It  gave  such  excellent  satisfaction  that  otliers 
were  built  forthwith,  and  during  the  next  year  the  engines 
were  introduced  into  Cornwall. f  Their  practicability  having 
been  demonstrated,  especially  as  obvious  improvements  were 
speedily  added,  within  a  very  few  years  they  came  into  gen- 
eral use  throughout  the  "  Black  Country  "  and  in  Cornwall, 
])articularly  in  the  latter  region,  where  the  mines  had  been 
sunk  so  deep  that  they  could  no  longer  be  worked  to  advan- 
tage by  luuid  and  horse  powei'.  It  is  l^elieved  that  Newcomen 
made  the  accfuaintance  of  Joseph  Hornblower  at  the  time  he 
was  building  his  first  successful  engine,  in  1712.  He  engaged 
Mr.  Hornblower  to  superintend  the  erection  of  other  engines 
subsequently,  and  brought  him  from  Staftordshire  about  the 
year  1735  to  supervise  the  erection  of  the  second  engine  in 
Cornwall — at  the  Wheal  Rose  mine,  a  few  miles  iioi'th  of  Red- 
ruth. He  soon  after  erected  another  engine  at  Wheal  Busy, 
or  Cliacewater,  and  a  third  at  Polgooth.  also  in  Cornwall.]; 
The  engines  were  called  after  the  inventor,  or  from  the 
country  where  they  were  best  known,  as  the  "Newcomen  "'  oi- 
"  Cornish  "  engines. 
Not  onlv  was  the  elder  Hornl)Ioweran  enoineer.ij  ])ut  several 


*  ■■  This  is  a  mistalce,  as  no  patent  was  ever  taken  out  by  Newcomen."' — Liven  of 
Boultoii  and  Watt,  by  Samuel  Smiles,  London,  1865.  63. 

t  Desagulier's  Experimental  Philosophy.  1744,  quoted  in  A  History  of  the  Growth 
of  the  Steam  Engine,  by  Prof.  Robert  H.  Thurston,  New  York,  1S(8,  pp.  33-68; 
Ure's  Dictionary  of  Arts,  etc.,  New  York,  1853, 1,  490.  Smiles  says  the  first  engine 
in  Cornwall  was  erected  in  1720. — Lives  of  Boultoii  and  Watt,  69. 

i  Yesterday  and  To-day,  by  Cyrus  Redding,  London.  1863. 

S  That  the  occupation  of  the  first  of  the  family  was  far  from  being  so  prosaic  is 
obvious  from  the  signification  of  the  name.  "  The  berner  was  a  special  houndsman 
who  stood  with  fresh  relays  of  dogs,  ready  to  unleash  them  if  the  chase  grew  heated 
and  long.  In  the  Parliamentary  Rolls  he  is  termed  a  "  yeoman-berner. "  Our  '  Honi- 
blows,"  curtailed  from  "Hornblower,'  and  simpler  'Blowers,'  would  seem  to  be 


AND   THE    FIRST    STEAM-ENGINE    IN    AMERICA.  5 

of  his  sons  were  likewise,  and  for  three-quarters  of  a  century 
or  more  the  family  was  prominent  in  engine  construc- 
tion.* Jonathan  Ilornblower,  the  oldest  son  of  Joseph,  was 
particularly  eminent  as  an  engineer,  and  in  1745  settled  in 
ConiAvallf  to  superintend  the  erection  of  "  fire-engines,"  tak- 
ing with  him  his  younger  brother  Josiali,  then  but  a  lad. 
Several  of  the  sons  of  Jonathan  followed  the  same  business 
for  nniny  years,  among  them  Jabez  Carter  and  Jonathan,  Jr. 
Tile  former  was  em})loyed  to  superintend  the  erection  of 
pumping  engines  in  llollaiul  and  Sweden,  and  was  a  dis- 
tinguished inventor  in  otlier  departments  of  sciejice  and  the 
arts. J  Jonathan  Hornblower,  Jr.,  was  one  of  the  rarest  in- 
ventors of  England.  He  it  was  who  (in  1770)  invented  the 
comjjound  or  double-cylinder  engine,  so  essentuil  for  the 
swift  iind  successful  navigation  of  the  ocean  to-day,  by  which 
the  steam  is  ec<momized  and  utilized  to  an  enormously  greater 


closely  related  to  the  last,  for  the  horn  figured  as  no  mean  addition  by  its  jubilant 
sounds  to  the  excitement  of  the  chase.  He  who  used  it  held  an  office  that  required 
all  the  attention  he  could  bring  to  bear  upon  it.  The  dogs  were  not  unleashed  until 
he  had  sounded  the  blast,  and  if  at  any  time  from  his  elevated  station  he  caught 
sight  of  the  quarry,  he  was  by  the  manner  of  winding  his  instrument  to  certify  tf) 
the  huntsman  the  peculiar  class  to  which  it  belonged.  In  the  Hundred  Rolls  wc 
Iind  him  inscribed  as  •  Blowhorn,'  a  mere  reversal  of  syllables."— jEh.7?/.s/(  Surnames. 
by  (ieorge  Wareing  Bardsley.  London.  18".'),  p.  231).  See  also  Lowers  Essati  on 
Eiif/lish  Su)-)iames,  London,  1819, 1,  10.5;  Arthur's  Efyinoloc/ical  Dictionary  of  Fain- 
ill/  and  Christian  Xatnes.  New  York,  18.5T,  p.  103.  There  is  a  somewhat  vague 
family  tradition  that  an  ancestor  named  Green  was  a  bugler  in  the  service  of 
Charles  II  (?),  and  that  his  dulcet  strains  so  captivated  the  ear  of  the  "  Merry  Mon- 
arch "  that  he  one  day  exclaimed,  "thou  shalt  be  my  horn-blower."'  Whence  the 
name.  Tlie  family  were  also  locally  and  colloquially  known  as  the  •Homers.'" — 
See  Lives  of  Boulton  and  Watt,  »S.  .!(«. 

*  In  the  early  days  of  engine  building,  there  was  as  much  difference  between  an 
engineer  and  a  manufacturer  of  engines,  as  there  is  to-day  between  an  architect 
and  a  house-builder.  The  Hornblowers  were  engineers ;  they  examined  into  the 
amoimt  of  work  recjuired  to  be  done  by  the  engine,  estimated  the  necessary  capa- 
city and  dimensions  of  the  several  parts,  made  all  the  drawings  and  superintended 
its  erection,  until  it  was  completed  and  satisfactorily  in  operation.  Boulton  &  Watt 
were  perhaps  the  first  to  combine  the  two  branches,  of  designing  and  constructing, 
in  their  works  at  Soho,  near  Birmingham. 

+  The  imposition  of  a  heavy  duty  on  coal  transported  coastwise  retarded  foi- 
many  years  the  extension  of  the  use  of  steam-engines  in  Cornwall,  which  had  to 
import  its  coal  from  Wales  by  water.  The  removal  of  this  duty  in  whole  or  in  part 
gave  an  immense  impetus  to  the  use  of  steam-engines  in  the  Cornish  mines,  and 
this  led  to  the  removal  thither  of  Jonathan  Hornblower. 

%  Family  records,  communicated  to  the  wiiter  by  the  Hon.  Joseph  P.  Bradley, 
Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States. 


h  JOSIAR     HORNBLOWEK, 

extent  than  would  l)o  possiljle  without  it.  At  the  same  time 
he  iuvented  several  other  valuable  improvements  in  the  steam- 
engine,  including  an  important  modification  of  the  walking- 
beam,  and  tight-fitting  coUars  about  the  cylinders  and  pistons, 
to  ])revent  waste  of  steam.*  He  did  not  apply  for  a  patent 
on  those  inventions  until  1781,  and  meantime  James  Watt 
had  (iji  iroo)  taken  out  a  patent  for  his  separate  condenser, 
which  is  the  greatest  improvement,  perhaps,  the  steam-engine 
has  undergone  from  the  time  (al)out  1628)  the  Marqnis  of 
Worcester  conceived  the  idea  of  "an  admirable  and  most 
forcible  way,  to  drive  water  by  fire,'*t  to  the  present  day. 
Watt's  patent  of  1169  evidently  included  the  mere  germs  of 
inventions  not  yet  fully  perfected  by  him,|  but  his  vague 
specifications  were  capable  of  a  comprehensive  application, 
which  his  shrewd  and  wealthy  jiartner,  Matthew  Boulton, 
w^as  not  slow  to  urge,  whenever  his  interest  demanded  it, with 
all  the  ingenuify  and  influence  he  could  exert  by  tongue,  ])en 
or  ample  pecuniary  resources.  Other  competitors  were  driven 
from  the  field,  and  the  Horn  blowers  especially,  as  the  most 
formidable, were  prosecuted,  nay,  persecuted  relentlessly,  for 
alleged  infringements  on  Watt's  inventions,  particularly  on 
the  principle  of  the  separate  condenser,  until  they  were  ruined, 
although  they  pluckily  kept  up  the  fight  for  years.  It  is  only 
witliin  the  past  few  years  that  not  only  has  the  vast  utility  of 
Hornblower's  compound  engine  been  demonstrated,  bur  the 
injustice  done  him  by  Boulton  and  Watt  has  been  adniittcil 
by  those  most  competent  to  judge. § 

It  was  surrounded  by  a  family  of  mechanics  and  engineers 
that  Josiah  Hornblower  grew  up  to  manhood,  and  became 
proficient  in  all  that  pertained  t<>  mining  and  machinery,  and 
especially  "  fii-e-cngines.''      His  attention   was   not   confined 


*  Encyclopedia  Britamiiea.  3d  ed.,  art.  "Steam  Engines.'' 

t  •'Century  of  Inventions,"'  by  the  Marquis  of  Worcester,  No.  OH.  See  Tliui-ston, 
ut  supra,  pp.  19-23. 

t  See  the  Specifications,  quoted  by  Tliurston.  ut  supra.  !)tt. 

§  For  a  fuller  account  of  Hornblower's  engine,  and  the  controversy  with  Boulton 
&  Watt,  see  Appendix  1.  Note  A. 


AXn    THE    FIRST    STEAM-EXGIXE    IX    AMERICA.  7 

solely  to  mechanics,  for  it  is  said  that  •'  without  the  aid  of  a 
liberal  education,  but  with  a  strong  mind  and  studious  habits, 
at  a  very  early  period  of  life,  he  became  acquainted  with  some 
of  the  most  intricate,  aiul  at  the  same  time  most  noble 
branches  of  science.  Mathematics,  magnetism,  electricity, 
optics,  astronomy,  and  in  short  the  whole  system  of  natural 
and  ludial  jdiilosophv.  became  his  favorite  studies.'"*  While 
he  was  engaged  in  the  erection  of  an  engine  at  Ang]esea,t  be- 
ing at  the  time  not  tweury-l'oiir  years  of  ;ige.  a  call  came  to 
him  from  L')ih1oii.  IFc  weiil  (hilher.  and  was  asked  bv  llio 
agent  of  Col.  .lohn  Scjinyler,  of  \e\v  .lersey.  to  erect-  a  steam- 
engine  at  that  gentlenuurs  copi)er  mine  in  America. 

The  story  of  the  discovery  of  this  mine  has  been  often  lold: 
how  Arcnl  Sehuyler.  a  scion  of  the  wealthy  and  distinguished 
family  of  that  name  at  Albany. J.  having  first  settled  at  Pomp- 
ton. S  about  lUOJI  removed  to  Xew  Barbadoes  Xeck.**  where 
he  owned  a  great  tract  of  land  on  the  eastern  bank  of  tho 
Passaic,  nearly  opposite  what  was  then  known  as  Second 
River  (now   lUdlevillc).  which    bade  fair  to   impoverish   hini: 


*  A  Collection  of  American  Epitaphs  and  Inscriptions,  by  the  Rev.  Timotliy 
Alden,  New  York,  1814.  No.  1063.  Vol.  V.  234-.J.  His  father's  tastes  ran  in  the  same 
direction,  whicli  accounts  for  the  son"s  bent  of  mind.  In  1755  his  father  wrote  to 
him  that  lie  had  been  making  successful  e.xperiments  with  an  electrical  macliine  of 
his  own  contriving,  by  which  he  could  apply  the  galvanic  current  to  any  part  of 
the  human  body,  to  relieve  local  pain.  This  is  one  of  the  earliest  instances  on 
record  of  the  use  of  electricity  in  disease.— i7orJt6ioM!e?-  3ISS. 

t  Proceedings  New  .lersey  Historical  Society.  May.  1851.  p.  IGl. 

iThe  statement  is  made  (on  the  auuiority  of  Alden"s  Epitaphsi.  in  Barber  it 
Howes  •■  Historical  Collections  of  New  .Jersey."  New  York.  1815.  p.  1.55.  that 
"Aarent  Schuyler  came  to  this  country,  from  Holland,  in  early  life,  depending 
upon  his  industry  alone,  under  Providence,  for  a  support;  "  that  is.  that  he  was 
poor.  In  fact,  he  was  born  at  Albany,  in  1662,  being  the  sixth  child  of  Philip 
Pieterse  Schuyler,  one  of  the  two  founders  of  the  family  in  America,  and  who  was 
at  this  time  a  wealthy  man.  though  still  young.— Histor;/  of  New  NetherlnnrJ ,  hy 
Dr.  E.  B.  (^Callaghau.  New  York.  18.55,  Vol.  II,  ITV;  Histori/  of  the  County  of  Hud- 
son. \ew  Jemey,  by  Charles  H.  W^infleld.  New  York,  187'4.  531-1:  Nen-  York  Gene- 
filofiical  and  Biographival  Record,  April.  18T4.  (iO. 

Sin  16D)  he  and  Ma.ior  Anthony  Brockliolst,  both  then  of  New  York,  Ixiuglit  5.5<)n 
acres  on  both  side-;  of  the  Pompton  river:  Schuyler  lived  where  is  tlie  present  \il 
lage  of  Pompton.— ///.sfoi-(Co7  Sketch  of  the  Counti/  of  Passaic,   Nev  Jerseii.  by 
Wilham  Nelson,  Paterson,  N.  J.,  1877.  -iv,. 
Winfleld.  ut  supra,  533. 

**  The  old  n.ame  of  the  neck  or  peninsula  lying  between  Newark  bay  and  the  Pa.s- 
saic  and  Hackensack  rivers.  New  Jersej-. 


8  JOSIAH     HOKNBLOWER, 

how  one  (lay,,  about  171-4-15.*  an  old  slave  found  a  heavy  green- 
ish stone  and  took  it  to  his  master,  whose  curiosity  being 
aroused  lie  had  it  assayed,  when  it  proved  to  be  a  rich  speci- 
men of  copper  ore;  how — and  here  the  story  is  enriched  by 
the  addition  of  a  legend  which,  with  appropriate  local  color- 
ing, lias  done  duty  for  many  ages  and  in  many  nations — the 
delighted  master  offered  to  reward  the  slave  by  granting  him 
any  three  requests  he  might  make,  whereupon  the  old  negro, 
after  ponderous  deliberation,  begged  that  he  might  be  allowed 
to  remain  all  his  days  with  his  master,  that  he  might  have  all 
the  tobacco  he  could  smoke,  and  that  he  might  have  a  drcss- 

*  Gordon  (Thomas  F.),  in  his  Gazetteer  of  New  Jersey,  Trenton,  N.  J.,  18;i4, 
p.  11,  gives  the  date  as  "about  1719.''  and  subsequent  writers  have  followed  him. 
although  he  gives  no  authority  for  his  statement.  But  Brigadier-General  Robert 
Hunter,  Governor  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey. writing  from  New  York,  November 
12,  171.5,  to  the  Lords  of  Trade,  encourages  them  to  believe  a  way  has  opened  for 
the  supply  of  copper  coinage,  "There  being  a  Copper  mine  here  brought  to  perfec- 
tion, as  you  may  find  by  the  Custom  house  books  at  Bristol,  where  there  was  im- 
ported from  this  place  about  a  Tonn  in  the  month  of  July  or  August  last,  of  which 
copper  farthings  may  be  coined,"  etc.^New  York  Colonial  Documents.  V,  -16:.'. 
This  undoubtedly  refers  to  the  Schuyler  mine,  and  appears  to  fix  the  date  of  its  work- 
ing as  early  as  171.5.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  the  actual  discovery  of  the  copper  was 
made  at  least  a  year  before,  as  the  first  samples  would  have  to  be  sent  to  England  for 
analysis,  and  a  report  received  thence,  ere  the  mine  would  be  "brought  to  perfec- 
tion," as  the  Governor  somewhat  exultantly  announces.  Writing  again  in  1720, 
Governor  Hunter  reports  "copper  but  rare,"  in  New  Jersey.— 76..  V,  .55(5;  and 
even  doubtingly  writes:  "  Some  Copper  as 'tis  Said  but  I  never  Saw  any."— ZJocu- 
ments  Relating  to  the  Colonial  History  of  the  State  of  New  Jersey  (Netv  Jersey 
Archives),  edited  by  William  A.  Whitehead,  Newark,  1882,  Vol.  IV,  450.  In  1721  he 
reports:  "there  is  a  great  quantity  of  iron  ore.  and  some  copper  "  in  the  province 
of  New  Jersey.— 76.,  V,  22;  Neiv  York  Colonial  Documents.  V.  603.  In  April,  1721, 
there  were  110  casks  of  ore  from  this  min^  shipped  from  New  York  to  Holland, 
and  the  Surveyor  of  the  Port  of  New  York  wrote  that  "  Copper  Oare  now  rises  very 
rich  and  in  great  plenty  in  a  New-discover'd  mine  of  one  Mr.  Schuyler  in  New  Jer- 
sey."—iVeto  Jersey  Archives.  V,  7.  The  shipment  of  the  ore  to  Holland  excited 
the  apprehensions  of  the  Lords  of  Trade,  who  suggested  that  it  should  be  pre- 
vented by  act  of  Parliament.  At  the  request  of  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  one  of  the 
Lords  Justices  of  the  Treasury,  Governor  Montgomerie  conferred  with  Col.  Schuy- 
ler, in  relation  to  the  matter,  but  could  only  secure  from  him  the  promise  that  the 
English  Copper  Company  should  have  the  first  sight  of  his  ore  when  his  ships 
arrived  in  England  with  it.— 76.,  V.  7,  0,  207.  This  was  in  1730^.  Curiously  enough, 
the  New  Jersey  Legislature  came  to  the  relief  of  the  English  manufacturers  in 
1('31,  by  imposing  a  duty  of  forty  shillings  per  ton  on  all  copper  ore  exported  from 
the  province  not  directly  to  Great  Britain;  and  still  more  strangely,  the  first  com- 
plaint against  this  measure  came  from  Bristol,  England,  where  were  extensive 
brass  and  copper  factories.  It  was  found  in  practice  that  the  law  was  evaded  by 
shipping  the  ore  to  New  York  and  thence  to  England  or  other  countries;  but  the 
Bristol  traders  feared  the  act  would  discourage  mining  operations  in  the  province. 
—76.,  V,  370,  40G. 


AND   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENGINE   IN    AMERICA.  9 

iiig-gown  like  his  master's,  with  big  brass  buttons,  and  being 
urged  to  ask  for  something  more  commensurate  with  the  im- 
portance of  the  favor  he  had  done  his  owner,  tluKight  lie 
would  be  satisfied  with  a  little  more  tobacco.*  Prof.  Kalm, 
the  Swedish  botanist,  states  that  '''some  Dutchmen  who  lived 
in  Philadelphia,"  still  (in  1748)  '"preserved  the  old  account 
among  them"  that  "on  digging  in  this  mine,  the  people  met 
with  holes  worked  in  the  mountain,  out  of  which  some  cop- 
per had  been  taken,  and  they  found  even  some  tools  which 
the  Indians  ])robably  made  use  of,  when  they  endeavored  to 
get  the  metal  for  their  })ipes."f  While  this  may  possil)ly  bave 
been  the  fact,  it  is  to  be  borne  in  mind  that  Kalm  was  a 
stranger  m  a  strange  land,  who  might  readily  misunderstand 
local  references  like  this,  and  his  informants,  living  ninety 
miles  away,  were  not  likely  to  be  familiar  with  the  facts.  J; 
Authorities  differ  as  to  the  character  and  value  of  the  \ield  of 
this  mine.  Wliile  it  is  |)Ossible,  even  probable,  that  lumps 
and  occasioiud  pockets  of  nearly  ])ure  copper  have  been  found 
in  and  about  the  neighborhood,  there  does  not  appear  to  bave 
l)een  a  true  vein  of  cojiper.  Rather  "  it  would  seem  as  if  a 
certain  stratum  of  the  rock  had  been  injected  with  the  metal- 
lic matter,  not  filling  a  cleft  or  fissure  in  it,  but  disi)ersing, 
and  as  it  were,  dissipating  itself  tbrougb  the  substance  of  the 


*  VVinflclfrs  Hudson  County,  533-4;   Gordon's  Gazetteer  of  New  Jersey.  11. 

t  Travels  into  North  America,  etc.,  by  Peter  Kalm,  2d  ed.,  London,  177!.',  Vol.  I. 
•300.  This  is  proliiibly  tlie  authority  for  the  statement  that  •'  hammers  and  otlier 
tools  were  found  in  an  opening  which  liad  Ijeen  worked  many  years  before  tliat 
date  (1719)  by  Dutch  aettters/'—Hiator!/  of  New  Jersey,  Philadelphia.  1877.  by 
John  O.  Raum,  Vol.  II,  3.54.  The  authority  for  the  statement  in  the  same  work  that 
this  mine  is  located  •'  in  the  town  of  Hanover,  Morris  County,"  is  not  fjiven  The 
mine  is  in  Union  township.  Bergen  county. 

i  As  an  amusing  instance  of  the  liability  of  travelers  to  get  their  notes  "  mixed," 
it  may  be  mentioned  that  Isaac  Weld.  Jr.,  in  his  "Travels  Through  the  States  of 
North  America,  during  the  years  1705-G-7,"  Ito  ed.,  London,  17!)!).  I'A,  relates  a 
mythical  story  of  the  finding  of  this  mine  by  a  person  who,  "  passing  by  at  three 
o'clock  in  tlie  morning,  observed  a  body  of  flame  arise  out  of  the  ground."  and 
with  prudent  forethought  drove  a  stake  into  tlie  spot,  and  excavations  being 
subsequently  made  there,  copper  was  discovered.  Weld  had  confounded  tne 
Schuyler  mine  with  that  near  New  Brunswick,  which  is  said  to  have  been  brought 
tolight  (about  1750)  in  this  marvelous  manner.— See  View  of  the  American  United 
States,  by  W.  Winterbotham.  London,  1795.  II.  308. 


]0  JOSIAIT     HORXBLOWER, 

sandstone/'  in  the  form  of  a  •*  compact,  dark-colored  snlphn- 
ret  ■'  and  carbonate  of  copper.*  Such  is  the  general  charac- 
teristic of  the  outcroppings  of  copper  in  Xew  Jersey.  At  one 
place  in  Paterson  the  trap-rock  looks  as  if  at  one  time  it  had 
been  a  mass  of  loose  boulders,  which  had  l)ecome  partially 
fused  by  the  heat,  and  was  then  permeated  with  the  sulphides 
and  carl)onates  of  copper,  f 

It  is  strange  that  such  exaggerated  notions  of  the  richness 
of  this  Schuyler  mine  should  have  jirevailed  so  long.  They 
were  doubtless  fostered  by  the  owners  from  time  to  time. 
Thus,  in  1833,  when  a  ncAv  company  was  forming  to  work  the 
mine,  it  was  represented  that  ''the  ore  of  the  principal  vein 
yields  from  '!0  to  ?(»  j)er  cent,  of  copper,  and  the  vein  will 
produce,  it  is  supposed,  from  lUO  to  120  tons  of  ore  annually, 
which  yields  from  four  to  seven  ounces  of  silver  t<>  the  liun- 
dred  pounds;  and,  like  most  copper  ores,  a  small  i)ortion  of 
gold.  When  pure  copper  was  sold  in  England  at  £75  sterling 
the  ton,  the  ore  of  this  mine  was  shipped  from  Xew  York  for 
that  market  at  £70  the  ton.  "J  These  statements  (from  (ror- 
rlon's  (lazetteer,  p.  12)  have  been  often  quoted  since,  bv  writ- 
ers who  overlook  the  fact  that  Gordon  is  careful  to  say  that 
they  arc  given  on  the  authority  of  ''several  resj)ectab]e  \tvY- 
sons.  who  have  the  skill  and  prO])er  means  to  Judge  of  them  " 


*  Geological  Survey;  of  New  Jersey,  by  Prof.  Henry  D.  Rogers,  1836.  pp.  167-8; 
clo..  IMO.  p.  160:  Geology  of  New  Jersey,  by  Prof.  George  H.  Cook.  1868.  p.  076: 
Lecture  on  the  Natural  History  of  New  .Jersey,  before  the  Newark  Mechanics' 
Association.  June  3,  1838.  by  Dr.  Samuel  L.  Mitchell.  19.  Copper  is  said  to  have 
been  found  at  Neversink.  in  \ftTi<^.— Calendar  o/  Neu-  Yo-k  Hisforirnl  ^rSS..  Dutcli. 
edited  by  E.  B.  O'Callaghan,  Albany.  186.5.  pp.  386-7. 

+  In  Marion  street,  between  Totowa  and  Union  avenues.  Patei'son.  N.J.  The  grad- 
ing of  the  streets  in  that  vicinity  has  destroyed  the  vestiges  which  formerly  existed 
of  a  large  shaft  and  two  drifts  into  the  side  of  the  hill,  one  running  under  Union 
avenue,  and  the  other  nearly  at  right  angles  to  and  under  and  some  distance 
beyond  Marion  street.  The  writer  penetrated  the  latter  drift  to  a  distance  of 
seventy  feet  or  more,  about  the  year  1870.  It  formerly  was  still  more  extensive,  he 
was  told.  The  shaft  and  drifts  were  made  more  than  a  centurj'  ago.  so  fai-  as  he 
lias  been  able  to  ascertain. 

i  These  figures  seem  incredible,  even  though  the  omission  of  the  word  "sterling" 
after  the  £7(t.  be  intentional,  and  New  York  currency,  or  $17.5,  is  meant.  In  1770 
only  11  tons  of  copper  ore  were  exported  from  America,  being  valued  at  i'8.>3  13s. 
sterling,  or  Ips- than  fiil  to  the  ton.— Statistical  Vien-  of  the  Commerce  of  the 
United  States,  by  Timothy  Pickering,  Hartford,  1816,  p.  31. 


AND   THK    FIRST    STEAM-ENGIXE    IN    AMERICA.  U 

—being  cloubtlcs.s  the  persons  interested  in  the  new  company. 
Gordon  himself,  Avliose  familiarity  with  the  mineralogy  and 
geology  of  New  Jersey  is  shown  in  the  opening  cliaptei-  o!'  liis 
(razctteer.  is  evidently  incredulous,  for  he  sarcastically  re- 
marks :  "If  the  ores  of  the  Schuyler  mine  give  from  four  t  o  seven 
ounces  of  silver  to  the  quintal,  and  are  abundant,  they  must  bo 
better  working  for  the  silver  alone  than  most  of  the  silver 
mines  of 'the  world;  and  the  coi)i)er  product  must  add  e]U)r- 
mously  to  tlieir  value."*  However,  the  Old  World  peoph^ 
were  continually  expecting  to  Hnd  mines  of  all  the  valuable 
metals  anywhere  and  everywhere  in  America,  and  when  cop- 
per was  actually  found,  even  of  the  quality  and  (pumtity  of 
that  dug  up  near  Second  River,  it  was  hailed  as  a  great  discov- 
ery, and  as  the  precursor  of  the  development  of  untold  riches 
as  the  work  should  be  pushed  deeper.  After  nearly  a  century 
of  vain  prosj^ecting  in  all  i)arts  of  '•  New  Netherland,''  this 
was  really  the  first  mine  of  any  value  that  had  been  dis- 
covered.!     When  first  worked,  near  the  surface,  there  is  rea- 

*  Gordon's  Gazetteer,  13. 

+  This  discovery  stimulated  renewed  researches  wherever  there  were  surface 
indications  of  metals,  however  slight,  and  the  trap  rock  of  the  First  and  Second 
Mountains  of  New  .Jersey  was  diligently  probed  within  the  next  few  years.  Copper 
mining  was  carried  on  to  some  extent  on  the  Kingsland  estates,  next  north  of  the 
Schuyler  property.  In  the  Neir  York  Gazette,  or  The  Weekhj  Post-Bon  for 
February  17.  IV.").).  tlie  ferry  at  Second  River  is  offered  for  lease,  with  the  stone 
ferry-house,  "  within  a  mile  both  of  3Iessrs.  Schuyler's  and  Lucas's  copper  mines, 
which  are  both  at  work."  The  traces  of  silver  found  with  the  copper  encouraged 
many  to  believe  (as  in  18.33)  that  silver  and  perhaps  gold  could  he  found  in  New 
Jersey.  Governor  Burnet  wrote  to  Lord  Carteret.  December  12.  IVS-i:  ''It  is  confi- 
dently reixirted,  that  Silver  &  even  Gold  Mines  are  to  be  found  in  New  Jersey.  But 
there  must  be  a  great  Allowance  made  for  the  humour  that  now  prevails  to  run  a 
Minehunting.  &  as  I  have  yet  nothing  but  very  suspicious  accounts  of  such  Discov- 
eries of  Royal  Mines.  I  cannot  pretend  to  give  any  opinion  yet  about  the  trurli  of 
them.  But  1  am  informal  that  several  persons  have  positively  declared,  that  if 
they  could  be  certain  in  whom  the  Title  lay,  &  that  they  should  have  a  reasonable 
share  of  them,  they  would  make  the  discovery,  &  never  otherwise. ''—AV/c  .leraeii 
Archives,  V,  64.  The  question  as  to  the  title  to  ••  Royal  Mines."  that  is.  mines  of 
tlie  precious  metals,  was  referred  to  the  Attorney  General  and  the  Solicitor  (iene- 
ral,  who  reported  it  (Nov.  30,  1723)  to  be  their  opinion  that  by  the  charter  granted 
to  the  Proprietors  of  New  Jersey  "  only  the  Base  Mines  within  tliat  Province  jiassed 
to  the  Grantees,  and  that  the  words  of  the  Grant  are  not  Suffident  to  carry  Royal 
Mines,  the  property  whereof  Still  Remains  in  the  Crown."— 26.,  V.  74.  Three  years 
later  Governor  Burnet,  referring  to  this  opinion,  said  he  had  not  since  heard  from 
the  people  who  had  declared  they  "had  a  prospect  of  silver  mines."  "nor  can  I 
give  them  any  encouragement  to  make  a  discovery,  unless  Your  Grace  (the  Duke 


12  JOSIAH    HOENBLOWER, 

son  to  believe  that  the  mine  was  highly  profitable,  although 
the  yield  averaged  only  about  100  tons  per  annum,  for  up  to 
1731  but  1,386  tons  of  the  ore  had  been  shipped  to  the  Bristol 
Coi)per  and  Brass  Works.*  As  England  did  not  permit  the 
smelting  and  refining  of  ore  in  the  colonies,  the  produce  of 
the  mine  was  all  transported  across  the  ocean.  Encouraged 
by  the  returns  from  their  workings,  the  sanguine  owners 
pushed  operations  with  vigor,  until  in  the  course  of  thirty 
years  the  mine  had  been  cairied  down  to  such  a  depth  that  it 
was  scarcely  profitable  to  sink  the  shafts  lower,  on  account  of 
the  difficulty  in  pumping  out  the  water  by  hand  and  horse- 
power. 

Tlie  new  ''fire-engines,''  which  had  recently  come  into 
general  use  in  the  manufacturing  districts  of  England,  seemed 
to  afford  the  opportunity  to  continue  the  advantageous  opera- 
tion of  the  mine  for  many  years  longer,  and  Col.  John 
Schuyler,  who  had  the  management  of  the  property  for  his 
brotliers  and  himself,  their  father  having  died,t  through  his 
agent  in  London  ordered  one  of  these  wonderful  machines. 
This  was  probably  in  1748  or  174!).  In  tlie  latter  year  Benja- 
min Franklin,  ever  interested  in  natural  science,  visited  the 
mine,  ami  in  February,  1750,  X.  8.,  writes  to  a  friend: 

•*  I  know  (jt  liiit  oiif  valuable  copper  mine  in  this  oouutrv.  which  istiiai 
of  Schuylers  in  the  Jerseys.  This  yields  good  copper,  and  has  turned  out 
vast  wealth  to  the  owners.  I  was  at  it  last  fall,  but  they  were  not  then  at 
work.  Tlie  water  has  grown  too  hard  I'or  them,  and  they  waited  for  a 
fii-e-cngine  from  England  to  dra;in  their  pits.  1  suppose  they  will  have 
tliat  at  wo'/k  next:  it  costs  them  one  thousand  pounds  sterling.":]: 


of  Newcastle)  shall  think  fit  to  obtain  His  Maj'tj^'s  instructions  to  me.  what  share 
His  Maj'ty  will  be  pleased  to  empower  me  to  offer  to  them  in  case  of  a  discovery."' 
— lb..  V.  I:i9.  It  were  vain  to  conjecture  the  amount  of  silver  and  g'oM  that  would 
have  been  produced  from  New  Jersey  mines  had  '"  His  Majesty  ""  adopted  a  liberal 
course  in  this  matter.  If  the  opinion  quoted  is  good  law.  tiie  title  to  all  gold  and 
silver  mines  in  New  Jersey  is  now  vested  in  the  State,  as  the  successor  of  the 
(rowu. 

*  Gordon's  Gazetteer,  11. 

+  Arent  Schuyler's  Avill  was  proven  July  6. 173.';  the  mine  was  left  to  his  three  sons. 

iLstter  of  Franklin  to  Jared  Eliot,  from  Philadelphia.  February  13,  1V49-50.— 
Works  of  Franklin,  edited  by  Jared  Sparks,  Boston.  1838,  VI.  107. 


AXD   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENGINE    IN    AMERICA.  lli 

It  was  four  yeaxs  or  more  after  the  engine  was  ordered  ere 
it  was  in  readiness  for  transportation.  Tlien  Josiah  Horn- 
blower,  who  had  doubtless  had  something  to  do  with  its  con- 
struction, was  engaged  to  accompany  it  to  America  and  super- 
intend its  erection  and  first  working.  We  may  easily  believe 
there  was  no  small  stir  in  the  quiet  home-circle  when  his  de- 
parture was  determined  upon,  and  there  Avas,  it  may  be  im- 
agined, a  natural  feeling  of  pride  that  one  of  their  family, 
and  he  so  young,  should  have  been  selected  for  so  important  a 
trust  as  the  introduction  of  steam-power  into  the  new  conti- 
nent. Moreover,  though  they  all  supposed,  us  he  did  him- 
self, that  he  would  return  home  as  soon  as  his  errand  was 
done,  and  he  had  seen  his  "fire-engine"  running  satisfac- 
torily, great  were  the  risks  attending  an  ocean  vogage  in  those 
days,  when  it  took  weeks  and  sometimes  months  to  traverse 
the  pathless  waste  of  waters,  and  when  none  had  as  yet 
dreamed  of  substituting  steam  as  a  motive  power  in  ocean 
navigation  in  lieu  of  the  fickle  winds.  The  event  was  so 
noteworthy  that  his  elder  brother.  Jcmathan.  mndc  tliis  entry 
in  his  diary: 

"  JJay  8.  1753. — Brother  Josiah  set  out  for  Falmouth  to  go  in  n  tin 
ship  to  London,  in  order  to  sail  to  New  York.  Xorth  America."* 

Nothing  is  said  of  the  object  of  his  journey:  tiiat  was  too 
well  known  to  need  explanation  in  a  |)rivate  diary. 

When  did  Ilornblower  arrive  in  America,  with  his  ])recious 
freight?  We  can  fix  the  date  almost  to  a  certainty.  The  Xew 
York  newspajjcrs  of  the  sumiuer  and  fall  of  17oo  mention, 
either  in  the  news  or  the  advertising  columns,  the  arrivals  of 
vessels  at  that  port.  Among  them  all  there  is  but  one  that 
seems  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  case,  and  that  is  the 
Snow  Irene,  whose  arrival  is  chronicled  in  l)oth  the  JVew 
YorJc  Mercurii  and  the  New  York  Gazette,  or   The  Weekt// 


*A  granddaughter  of  this  brother  sent  in  1844  to  the  late  Chief -Justice  Homblower 
the  above  extract  from  her  grandfather'^;  diary.  It  was  communicated  to  llie 
writer  by  Mr.  Justice  Bradley. 


14  .TOSIAH     HORXBLOWEfl, 

Fosf-Boi/.    ..f    Monday.    Septem})er   10.    IToS.      The    latter 
say^i : 

'•  Last   Night  arrived  here  the  Snow  Irene,  v'apt.  Garrison,  in  about 
twelve  weeks  from  London." 

A  perusal  of  the  newspapers  of  the  day  would  indicate  to 
the   careful  reader    that    the  Irene  was  no    common    vessel, 
and  that  ('apt.  Garrison  was  more  tlian  an  ordinary  seaman, 
for  there  are  numerous  references  to  both.     The  ship  had 
l>een  Iniilt  at  Staten  Island  five  years  before,  for  the  trans- 
portation of  Moravians  to  their  missions  in  the  New  World, 
and  had  even  made  a  voyage   to  Greenland   on   this  errand. 
(,'aptain  Nicholas  Garrison,  a  native  of  Staten   Island,  had 
been  converted  to  the  faith  of  the  United  Brethren  in  1VM\. 
by   association    with    the  saintly    Bishop    Sj^angenberg,  and 
thenceforward  devoted  his  life  to  their  cause,  spending  his 
last  years  among  them  at  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania,  where  he 
tiled  in  1?8L*     The  vessel  was  most  appropriately  named  the 
Irene,   for   she  was  indeed  a  messenger  of  peace.     On  this 
voyage  she  bore  to  America   the  means  of  utilizing  a  power 
which  was  destined  to  have   a  scarcely  less  potent  influence 
in  civilizing  the  Xew  World  than  the  Gospel  itself,  which  the 
little  shi])  had  been  built  to  carry  to  the  heathen.     This  pass- 
age  was  twice  as  long  as  usual  for  lier,  as  she  averaged  but 
six  weeks  between  London  and   Xew  York  for  several  years, 
making  four  tri])s  annually. 

Mr.  Hornblowe)''s  experience  was  such  that  he  ever  after 
had  a  dread  of  crossing  the  ocean. f     That  there  were  j^assen- 


*  Some  f  urtlier  account  of  the  Irene  and  of  Captain  Garrison  will  be  found  in 
Appendix  I.  Note  B. 

t  Other  tessels  crossing  at  the  same  time  experienced  great  hardsliips.  Says  the 
New  York  Gazette,  in  the  same  issue  that  announces  the  arrival  of  the  Irene  : 
"  Last  Week  arrived  at  Sandy  Hook,  and  has  since  gone  up  to  Aniboy,  the  Brig 
Charming  Sally,  Captain  Heysham.  of  this  port,  from  Hamburgli.  having  had  a 
passage  of  sixteen  Weeks  from  Land  to  Land,  in  which  they  were  i-educed  to  the 
short  Allowance  of  a  Bisket  a  Day  per  man.  for  a  great  while,  and  in  all  Probabil- 
ity some  of  them  would  have  perished,  had  they  not  met  witli  a  Boston  V^essel  a 
few  Weeks  ago,  who  help'd  them  to  a  small  Supply.  The  last  Piece  of  Meat  they 
had  was  dressed  the  Day  they  got  into  the  Hook." 


AS*I)    THE    FIHST    STEAM-EXOINK    [X    AMF.HK'A.  15 

.livrs  of  iiitelligenoo  on  rlu-  Ireue  on  this  occasion  ujrpcar.s 
from  the  statement  in  the  New  York  Gazetic  :  "  Hv  some 
gentlemen,  passengers  in  Captain  (iarrison,  we  arc  tohl,  tiiat 
his  Excellency  Governor  Osborne,  was  to  embark  foi'  this 
place  some  time  in  the  month  of  .Se])tember  instant."' 

Nothing  is  said  of  the  extraordinai-v  freight  brought  over 
on  the  stout  little  craft,  'i'lic  yonng  engineer  was  a  prudent 
man.  and  did  not  care  to  publish  abroad  the  errand  on  which 
he  had  come.  The  laws  of  England  at  that  time  strictly 
prohibited  the  exportation,  even  to  tlic  colonies,  of  artisans 
or  machinery  calculated  to  build  up  industries  that  miffht 
rival  those  of  the  mother  country.*  Even  though  •'fire-en- 
gines" were  not  included  within  the  ])rohibition,  the  an- 
nouncement of  the  arrival  of  such  a  machine  at  New  York 
might  liave  provoked  a  curiosity  that  would  have  been  vex- 
atious and  caused  delay.  Aside  from  this,  it  is  dithcult  to  ex- 
plain the  silence  of  both  the  Gazette  and  the  Mercury 
— unenterprising  as  they  were,  compared  with  modern  stand- 
ards— on  a  subject  of  such  vast  interest  as  the  introduction  of 
steam-power  into  the  tield  of  American  industries.!     James 

The  New  York  Mercury  of  the  same  date  says:  "Last  Week  Captain  Hey- 
sbam  of  this  Port  arrived  here  from  Holland,  but  last  from  Dover,  after  a  very 
tedious  Passage  of  17  Weeks;  'tis  said  had  their  last  piece  of  Meat  in  the  Pot,  when 
they  K'Ol  into  the  Huok." 

In  a  letter  to  Mr.  Hornblower  from  his  yoimgest  brother,  Isaac,  dated  Nov.  G, 
1801.  is  the  following  passage:  "Mr.  John  Sadler  was  at  our  house  -soon  after  he 
returueil  from  America,  and  he  told  us  we  should  not  see  you  again  in  this  country 
(England),  for  he  was  very  sure  you  would  not  attempt  to  cross  the  sea  again  if 
you  might  have  all  England,  on  account  of  your  having  had  so  bad  a  voyage  out: 
therefore  we  gave  up  all  thoughts  of  having  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  any  more 
in  this  world,  which  gave  us  all  much  ^rwi." —Hornbloirer  MSS. 

The  Jrene's  latest  advices  from  the  Old  World  were  from  Paris,  May  28;  Lon- 
don, June  8:  Edinburgh,  June  14  (?),  according  to  the  New  York  Gazette,  which 
in  Se{)tember  cheerfully  pubhshed  copious  extracts  from  the  London  newspapers 
uf  those  remote  dates,  as  "  news." 

*  Black.stone.  IV,  cap.  XII,  11. 

+  That  Col.  John  Schuyler  had  sufficient  influence  to  secure  the  lacit  assent  of 
the  authorities  in  England  to  the  exportation  of  his  "fire-engine''  appears  proba- 
ble from  the  favor  in  which  he  was  held  by  the  Royal  Governors  of  New  York  and 
New  Jei-sey.  He  was  recommended  to  Governor  Cosby  for  a  seat  in  the  Council  of 
New  Jer.sey,  June  --i.  1T3-J.  by  Lewis  Morris,  subseipiently  tiovernor  of  New  Jersey. 
who  described  him  as  "  of  the  Dutch  Church  he  is  a  per.son  of  A  good  Estate  sou  to 
that  Schuyler  who  ownd  the  copper  mine  and  one  of  the  three  to  whom  the  mine 
was  devised  by  the  father."— A'Mf  Jersey   Archives,    V,    318.      Governor  Cosby 


10  JOSiAH    HOKXBLOWER, 

Parker,  the  editor  of  the  Gazette,  was  moreover  a  Jersey- 
man,  who  took  s])ecial  pains  to  give  intelligence  affecting  his 
native  province.* 

The  next  mention  we  find  of  the  novel  machine  is  in  the 
acconnt-])ooks  of  the  Schuyler  mine: 

"  1753. 
"Sept.  25. — To  cash  pd  for  8  days,   carting  ye  engine  & 

boards  to  ye  mine  at  6s '£3  i.  8      0." 

This  corresponds  with  the  previous  dates.  Josiah  Horn- 
blower  left  home  May  8,  175.3,  for  London,  via  Falmouth; 
Avaited  there  two  or  three  weeks  for  the  Irene  to  sail,  and 
after  a  voyage  of  three  months  arrived  in  New  York  Se])tem- 


recommended  Schuyler  for  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  Col.  Peter  Baird 
(Bayard?),  and  in  his  letter  of  August  7,  1734.  to  the  Lords  of  Trade,  says  of  him: 
"  The  Gent'u  whom  I  offer  for  your  Lordships  recomendation  is  one  of  the  great- 
est riches  in  this  Country  being  Owner  of  the  great  Copper  Mine  in  New  Jersey 
from  whence  are  sent  yearly  to  the  Bristol!  Company  considerably  quantitys  of 
copper  Ore  and  a  gentm'n  who  not  only  in  point  of  fortune  but  capacity  and  Incli- 
nations to  Serve  his  Maj'ty  I  Esteem  as  the  most  fitt  person  to  Succeed  Coll.  Baird 
in  that  Station.  I  therefore  entreat  the  favour  of  your  Lordships  to  recommend 
this  Gentm'n  to  his  Ma'tie  for  his  Ma'ties  approbation  and  appointment." — Neic 
Jersey  Archives,  V,  374,  402.  On  September  o,  1735,  he  again  urged  the  appoint- 
ment, which  was  soon  after  made. —New  York  Colonial  Documents,  VI,  30. 
Governor  Morris  accepted  the  resignation  of  Colonel  Schuyler  with  great  reluc- 
tance, December  1,  1739,  saying  in  a  letter  to  the  Duke  of  Newcastle:  "  This  Schuy- 
ler is  part  owner  with  his  two  brothers  of  ye  famous  Jersie  copper  mine,  &  is 
Intrusted  witli  the  management  of  it;  he  had  often  earnestly  press'd  me  to  be  dis- 
charge, protesting  he  could  not  attend  the  Coiincill  without  the  greatest  prejudice 
to  his  private  affaires,  w'ch  indeed  I  believe  was  true:  but  I  was  loth  to  discharge 
him  because  he  was  a  man  of  good  sence  &  great  interest  in  his  neighbourhood,  & 
withall  firmly  in  the  interest  of  the  present  government.  However,  his  attendance 
at  the  distance  from  his  habitation  at  the  places  that  I  am  to  hold  Councills  and 
Assemblyes  in,  being  of  so  great  hurt  to  his  private  affaires  I  at  last  consented  to 
dismiss  him.'"— Papers  of  Lewis  Morris,  edited  by  W.  A.  Whitehead.  New  York. 
18.52,  119-80.  And  again,  writing  in  174.5  to  the  Lords  of  Trade,  he  says:  "John 
Schuyler  is  a  man  of  Good  sense  and  large  substance  being  suppos'd  not  to  be 
worth  less  than  (30  or  70.000  pound,  and  is  very  much  in  the  interest  of  the  Govern- 
,ment,  but  having  the  sole  management  of  the  copper  mines  w'ch  are  in  that 
family,  could  not  be  prevail'd  on  to  attend  the  Councill  nor  cannot  be  prevail'd  on 
to  attend  it;  being  so  prejudicial!  to  his  own  private  affaires.''— /6.,  318.  It  is  not 
unlikely  that  Col.  Schuyler  was  obliged  to  exert  all  the  influence  he  could  com- 
mand to  secui-e  permission  to  export  his  "fire-engine,"  and  perhaps  this  accounts 
for  the  delay  of  four  years  or  more  which  elapsed  between  the  ordering  and  the 
arrival  of  the  engine. 

*  Parker  was  a  native  of  Woodbridge,  New  Jersey,  wliere  he  was  born  1714.  and 
lived  most  of  his  life,  although  having  printing  presses  not  only  there  but  at  New 
Haven  and  T>iewYork.-  History  of  Printing  «i  America,  by  Isaiah  Thomas,  Worces- 
ter. 1810.  II,  99,  121,  373,  etc.;  Contributions  to  the  Early  History  of  Perth  Amboy. 
etc..  by  W.  A.  Whitehead,  New  York,  18.56,  375. 


AXD   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENGIXE    TN    AMERICA.  17 

ber  9,  1753,  and  in  the  course  of  the  next  two  weeks  saw  his 
precious  engine  transported— doubtless  by  water  to  Second 
River,  and  tlience  by  land — to  the  mine. 

The  young-  engineer  may  well  have  been  dismayed  by  the 
prospect  that  confronted  him  when  his  engine  was  set  down 
in  pieces  near  the  mine.  He  had  encountered  untold  dangers 
in  getting  it  there;  bnt  his  task  was  jnst  begun.  The  only 
skilled  help  in  the  country  u})on  which  he  could  depend  for 
the  erection  of  the  machine  was  the  few  men  he  had  brought 
with  him.  There  was,  perhaps,  scarcely  another  mechanic  in 
all  America  who  had  the  slightest  idea  of  the  construction  of 
a  steam-engine.  So  lie  had  to  lay  out  the  Avhole  work,  even 
to  the  minutest  details;  to  locate  the  engine-house,  tix  its  di- 
mensions, furnish  drawings  of  its  various  elevations;  direct 
the  construction  of  the  engine-bed,  superintend  the  putting 
together  of  the  boiler,  the  engine  and  the  connecting  pump- 
ing machinery,  and  in  short  to  see  to  everything.  All  this 
took  time.  Stone  had  to  be  quarried  and  hewn  into  shape; 
clay  had  to  l)e  dug  and  Iturnt  into  brick;  lime  brought  from 
distant  towns;  "fire  stone"  carted  from  the  mountain; 
trees  felled  for  the  heavy  timbers,  and  in  some  instances 
l)rought  long  distt:nces  by  "slays"  over  the  snow  to  the 
mine;  and  at  last,  when  the  house  was  in  readiness,  the 
boiler  and  engine  had  to  be  set  up  in  their  new  tpiarters.  With 
admirable  forethought,  Mr.  Hornblower  had  brought  with 
him  duplicate  and  even  triplicate  parts  of  the  engine,  to  sup- 
ply deticiencics  in  case  of  accident.*  Otherwise  it  would  have 
))een  necessary  to  wait  until  tliey  could  be  imported  from 
ilngland,  for  it  is  safe  to  say  there  was  not  a  shop  in  America 
where  the  necessary  castings  could  have  ])een  made.  And 
this  was  onlv  a  little  more  than  a  centurv  agol     The  entriesf 


*  Proeeeilings  New  Jersey  Tlistorical  Society.  May,  1851.  103. 

t  For  these  extracts  the  writer  is  indebted  to  Judge  Bradley,  wlio  copied  them 
from  the  books  in  1865.  It  is  fortunate  that  he  did  so,  for  the  books  anil  other 
family  records  of  the  Schuyler  family  were  consumed  by  a  fire  which  (November 
15,  l«ru)  destroyed  the  residence  of  Arent  H.  Schuyler,  srandsou  of  Colonel  John 
Schuyler. 
9 


IH  JOSIAH     HORXBLOWER, 

ill  tlie  mine  l)ooks  tell  their  own  story  so  plainly  that  it  is 
worth  reprodncing  tlieni: 

1753. 
Oct.  25.     To  carting  G24  bushels  lime  to  ye  mine  for  ye  en- 
gine house i.'-       I'       0 

To  carting  66  days,  clay  &  stone  &  300  boards  to 

ye  mine  6s.  jjr  day .  _   .  _    . .  ^     19     l(i       0 

To  11   days  carting  3000  shingles  &  10  thousand 

brick  &c.  to  ye  mine 3       6       U 

Dec.  38.    To  cash  pd  lor  16  days  carting  timber  to  ye  saw- 
mill &  mines  foi'  ye  engine  house  at  6s _       4     16       0 

1754. 

Jan.    8.    To  6  days  slaying  timber  for  ye  engine ,       1     16       U 

Feb.  34.    To  10  days  slaying  stone  &  timber  for  ye  engine  . .       3       0      0 
Mch.   1.    To  cash  pd  for  carting  timber  for  ye  engine  house.  15      U 

Apr.    3.    To  cash  pd  for  sashes  hi  the  engine  house _-.  10       6 

Junel3.    To  cash  pd  Josiah  Ward  for  1  days  carting  fire 

stone  for  ye  engine  from  the  mountain 8       0 

132  days  carting  stone  &  timlier  for  the  engine 

house  at  6s.  per  day 3!)     13       U 

July  13.    To  pd   Elizabeth   Davis  for  a  tree  for  ye  engine 

house 10      0 

3  days  carting 13       0 

Uct.  10.    To  pd  Thos.  Childs  tor  l^^  days  mason  work  at  the 

engine  house .-.  '■>      0 

Oct.  28.    To  pd  Thos.  Plunnner  &  Thos.   Bai-nes  foi-  putting 

the  boiler  at  ye  engine  house  together 35       1       6 

1755. 
Jan.  11.    To  pd  Benj.  Smith   for  work  done  on   ye  engine 

house  as  per  his  aect  &.  receipt 52       5       0 

Mar.  13.    To  53  days  carting  .stone  &  fire  wood  for  ye  engine     15     15      0 

Tlie  last  two  items  indicate  that  Hie  engine  was  i-eady  for 
liring  u\)  some  time  hetween  January  11  and  Marcli  \:i.  IT.V), 
oi-  nearly  a  year  and  a  half  after  its  appearance  in  tlie  New 
\\'()rld.  The  day  has  at  last  arrived  Avhen  the  wonderful  ma- 
chine is  to  he'set  to  work,  and  the  young  engineer  is  to  see 
the  fiMiition  of  his  long-deferred  hopes,  after  eighteen  months 
of  anxious  toil.  Let  us  accom])any  him  on  this  eventful 
morning.  As  we  near  the  long-disused  sliaft  of  the  mine  we 
see  an  odd-looking  building,  shingle-roofed,  something  like 


AND   THE    FIRST   STEA.M-ENGIXE    IN    AMERICA.  19 


twenty  or  thirty  feet  square,  and  as  high  as  it  is  h)ng,  through 
one  wall  of  which  projects  the  walking-beam,  terminating 
in  an  aw — resembling  a  huge  arm  witli  a  sort  of  claw  on 
the  end,  clutching,  as  it  were,  the  pum])-rod,  which  descends 
one  hundred  feet  into  the  earth.  Entering  the  engine-house, 
we  behold  the  strange  machinery  which  is  to  move  that 
mighty  arm  we  have  just  seen  outside.  At  our  feet  is  a  small 
door,  into  which  wood  is  being  thrust  by  the  attendant,  to 
feed  the  hungry  flames  within.  Above  the  furnace  is  a  large 
dome,  the  lower  part  of  which  is  inclosed  by  brick-work,  as 
if  to  preserve  the  heat,  while  the  upper  part  is  seen  to  be 
brightly-polished  co])per.  This  is  the  boiler,  eight  or  ten  feet 
in  diameter  and  about  the  same  in  height.  On  a  stout  frame 
of  beams,  directly  above  the  middle  of  the  boiler,  and  con- 
nected with  it  by  a  short  pijie,  towers  the  huge  cylinder, 
three  feet  in  diameter  and  eight  feet  high,  the  upper  rim 
tiangeing  out  two  or  three  inches,  to  hold  a  wooden  jacket. 
From  the  top  of  the  cast-iron  cylinder  rises  again  the  piston- 
rod,  which  is  connected  by  links  and  bolts  with  an  arc  on  the 
inner  end  of  the  great  walking-beam  of  heavy  timbers,  firmly 
bolted  together,  which  rests  on  sectors  on  the  stout  brick  wall 
on  one  side  of  the  building,  the  outer  end  projecting  several 
feet  beyond,  to  connect  with  the  pump-rod,  as  we  saw  before 
we  entered  the  liouse.  Between  the  engine  and  this  wall 
hangs  a  narrow  boai'd.  with  pins  and  holes  in  various  places, 
to  engage  the  valve  handles  and  nn)ve  them  at  the  proper 
times  and  to  the  pro])er  extcTit.  This  is  connected  also  with 
the  walking-beam,  so  that  the  motion  of  the  latter  regulates 
the  former,  and  the  engine  once  started  works  automatically. 
From  a  small  tank  of  water,  supi)orted  on  a  frame  several 
feet  higher  than  the  cylinder,  descends  a  ])ipe.  from  which 
one  branch  runs  over  the  top  and  another  into  the  bottom  of 
the  cylinder,  the  latter  pi})e  ])r()jecting  a  few  inches  upward 
on  the  inside.  The  tire  has  been  raging  tiercely  for  some 
time.  The  heavy  lid  resting  on  an  open  valve,  and  constitut- 
ino-  the  onlv  safetv-valve  then   known,  which  de])ends  almost 


20  JOSIAH     HORXBLOWER, 

entirely  on  the  weiglit  of  the  atmosphere  to  keep  it  down,  has 
begun  to  tremble  slightly,  indicating  that  there  is  an  abun- 
dance of  steam.  The  young  engineer  opens  one  and  then  the 
other  of  the  two  simi)le  gauge-cocks  projecting  from  the  top 
of  the  boiler,  and  they  corroborate  the  testimony  of  the  safety- 
valve.  Then,  with  an  anxiety  born  of  the  importance  of  the 
occasion,  and  a  confidence  which  is  the  creature  of  his  expe- 
rience and  his  knowledge,  he  himself  opens  the  steam-cock  in 
the  narrow  neck  communicating  betAveen  the  toj)  of  the 
boiler  and  the  bottom  of  the  cylinder.*  The  steam  rushes  into 
the  cylinder,  filling  it  instantly.  Another  cock  is  opened, 
and  the  Avater  from  the  tank  above  is  allowed  to  spurt  up  in- 
to the  bottom  of  the  cylinder,  through  a  "rose"  on  the  end 
of  the  pipe  projecting  upward,  and  a  fine  spray  is  thrown  u}) 
against  the  bottom  of  the  i)iston,  which  has  been  resting  at 
the  top  of  the  cylinder.  As  the  spray  rises  and  then  falls 
again,  it  instantly  condenses  the  steam,  which  drops  to  the 
bottom  of  the  cylinder  in  the  form  of  water,  and  runs  out  by 
the  force  of  gravity  through  another  pipe,  and  down  into  a 
hot-well  beside  the  furnace.  What  little  air  was  left  is  driven 
out  also,  and  a  vacuum  remains,  which,  being  abhorred  by 
nature,  the  powers  of  the  air  are  exerted  to  fill  it,  which  is 
done  by  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere  forcing  ihe  piston 
down  to  the  bottom  of  the  cylinder,  the  space  above  the  pis- 
ton being  all  open.  This  space  is  now  filled  by  a  stream  of 
water  from  the  iqiper  branch-pipe  from  the  tank.  The  en- 
gineer has  so  skillfully  calculated  the  weight  of  tlie  |)uni|)-r()d 
and  the  w^ater  to  be  lifted  bv  it,  at  one  end  of  the  walking- 
beam,  and  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere  on  the  piston-head  at 
the  other,  and  has  so  accurately  adjusted  the  respective  arms  of 
the  walking-beam,that  the  weight  of  the  atmosphere  i»n  tlie  ])i.s- 


*"  It  required  three  hands  to  work  Nevvoomen's  first  engines.  I  have  heard  it 
said  tliat  wlien  the  engine  was  stopped,  and  again  set  to  worli:.  tlie  words  were 
passed,  •  Snift.  Benjy !'  ■  Blow  the  fire.  Pomery !"  •  Work  away.  Joe !'  The  last  let  in 
the  condensing  water.  Lifting  the  condensing  clack  was  called  '  snifting  "  because, 
on  opening  the  valve,  the  air  rushing  through  it  made  a  noise  like  a  man  snifting. 
The  fire  was  increased  through  artificial  means  by  another  hand,  and  all  being 
read}-,  the  machine  h  as  set  in  motion  by  a  thnd/'—Yeaterday  and  To-day,  I,  .'iG. 


AXD   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENGINE    IN    AMP^RICA.  21 

ton-head  is  just  a  little  more  than  sufficient  to  lift  the  water  from 
the  required  depth.  The  next  problem  is  to  reverse  this  opera- 
tion, and  that  is  done  by  again  letting  steam  into  the  cylinder 
from  below,  when  the  subtle  force  counterbalances  the  weight 
of  the  atmosi)here,  the  pump-rod  descends  by  its  own  gravity 
into  the  shaft  once  more,  thus  raising  the  piston-rod,  while 
the  water  above  the  piston-head  runs  oft'  through  a  convenient 
pipe,  into  the  hot-well  before  mentioned.  Thus  the  piston 
rises  and  descends  ten  or  twelve  times  a  minute,  with  a  stroke 
of  six  or  seven  feet.  The  waste  of  steam  is  enormous,  as  the 
cylinder  is  cooled  each  time  by  the  spray,  to  condense  the 
steam  beneath  the  piston,  and  by  the  "packing"  of  water 
above  it.  Such  was  the  Newcomen  or  Cornish  "  fire-engine  '' 
of  1755,  set  up  by  Mr.  Horn  blower  at  the  Schuyler  co})per 
mine  in  that  year.*  As  will  be  perceived  from  the  descrip- 
tion, it  was  extremely  simple  in  its  construction  and  in  its 
operation,  and  though  wasteful  of  steam  and  fuel,  was  ex- 
ceedingly effective,  so  much  so  that,  with  some  modifications, 
it  is  used  to  this  day  in  some  of  the  deepest  mines  of  the 
world,  in  preference  to  any  other.  The  dimensions  of  the 
engine  given  above  indicate  a  capacity  of  about  eight  hogs- 
heads per  minute,  lifted  100  feet,  or  720,000  gallons  per  day. 
But  the  pum]i  cylinder  was  only  about  ten  inches  in  diameter. 


*  For  fuller  details  of  engines  of  this  date  see  Thnrston.  ut  supra.  58-65.  Halt  of 
the  cast-iron  cylinder  of  the  engine  brought  over  by  Mr.  Hornblower  is  now  in  the 
possession  of  S.  J.  Meeker,  successor  of  D.  M.  Meeker  &  Son,  and  is  at  Mr.  Meeker's 
foundry,  in  Clay  street,  near  Ogden  street.  Newark,  N.  J.  Mr.  Meeker  says  the 
dimen.sions  are  as  follows:  Inside  diameter.  81i^  inches;  thickness  of  casting,  one 
inch:  length,  47}^  inches;  pro.iection  of  flange.  -^14  inches.  This  indicates  that  the 
cylinder  was  nearly  or  quite  eight  feet  in  length.  John  Van  Emburgh.  who  had 
worked  for  Mr.  Hornblower  on  the  engine  in  1793,  informed  Judge  Bradley  in  18(i5 
that  according  to  the  best  of  his  recollection  the  cylinder  was  about  three  feet  in 
diameter  and  seven  feet  long,  with  six-foot  stroke.  Mr.  Meeker's  measurements, 
taken  in  May.  188-5,  confirm  Mr  Van  Emburgh's  recollection  to  a  singular  degree. 
This  fragment  of  cylinder  was  exhibited  at  the  Centennial  Exposition,  at  Philadel- 
phia, in  1876.  with  a  printed  letter  from  Judge  Bradley,  giving  some  account  of  its 
history.  Yet  the  official  narrative  of  the  Exposition  is  extremely  inaccurate  in  its 
references  to  the  engine  of  which  this  cylinder  was  a  part.  Mr.  Van  Emburgh 
described  the  boiler  as  a  copper  cylinder.  "  staTiding  upright,  eight  or  ten  feet  high, 
and  a-,  much  in  dia-neter.  with  a  flit  bottom  and  a  dome-shaped  top  "—Letter  of 
Judge  Bradley  to  D.  M.  Meeker. 


22  JOSIAH     HOKXBLOWEE, 

and  the  wooden  pump-ivxl  six  inches  square,*  thus  reducing 
the  sectional  area  of  the  column  of  water  to  42.48  square 
inches,  and  the  discharge  to  about  134  gallons  per  minute,  or 
a  trifle  less  than  200,000  gallons  daily.  A  much  larger  jtump 
could  easily  have  been  driven  by  the  engine,  ami  tlie  discharge 
of  water  corres])ondingly  increased. 

The  mine  and  the  new  engine  weiv  highly  attractive  to 
travelers,  who  fre({uently  went  out  of  their  way  to  see  them. 
The  Rev.  Andrew  Burnal\y,  in  July,  1760,  speaks  of  having 
gone  to  '•  Colonel  John  Schuyler's  copper-mines,  where  there 
is  a  very  rich  vein  of  ore,  and  a  fire-engine  erected  upon  com- 
mon principles,"!  There  are  like  references  in  the  writings 
of  several  other  later  travelers,  but  no  particulars  of  value  are 
given,  and  most  of  their  statements  are  incorrect.  Lieut. 
Isaac  Bangs,  of  the  Massachusetts  militia,  evidently  a  verdant 
young  man,  visiting  the  place  on  June  22.  1776,  says  with 
simple  wonder  of  the  mines:  "•The  Work  which  we  could 
perceive  had  been  done  in  them  was  sufficient  to  astonish  any 
Man  who  had  seen  so  little  of  tiie  World  as  I  had.  *  *  * 
The  Engine  (for  throwing  off  the  Water)  *  *  *  cost  about 
3  Thousand  Sterling  and  would  cast  out  of  the  Earth  80 
Hogsheads  in  a  Minute.  This  was  actuated  by  Fire,  and  from 
fire  it  had  its  only  Motion,  and  it  was  constructed  upon  the 
same  Principles  and  much  in  the  same  Form  as  that  of  X. 
York  for  watering  the  C'ity,|  but  (from  necessity)  the  Works 
of  Mr.  Schuyler  were  greatly  superior  in  Magnitude  to  those 
of  the  Oitv.  of  which  I  could  indge  bv  the  incombustible  Mat- 
ter  which  was  still  remaining. "«j     The  credulous  lieutenant 

*  These  were  the  dimensions  of  the  pump  and  pump-rod  in  1793.  as  given  in  1865 
to  Mr.  Justice  Bradley  by  John  Van  Emtjurgh.  then  one  hundred  years  old.  The 
discharge  from  the  mine  would  doubtless  be  greater  in  17.^5.  when  the  water  was 
lifted  from  a  less  depth,  unless  this  was  offset  by  the  improvements  made  in  the 
machinery  in  the  course  of  forty  years,  which  is  also  very  probable. 

t  Travels  through  the  Middle  Settlements  in  North  America,  in  the  Years  1750-60, 
by  the  Rev.  Andrew  Burnaby.  D.D..  3d  ed..  London.  1798.  76. 

i  The  reference  is  doubtless  to  the  water- works  erected  in  1771  and  completed  in 
the  spring  of  1776,  by  Christopher  Colle»,  in  Broadwaj-,  between  Pearl  and  White 
streets.  New  York. — See  History  of  the  City  of  Nerv  York,  by  Mary  L.  Booth.  New 
York.  18.50. 

!( ■•  Extract  from  the  Journal  of  Isaac  Bangs."  Proceedings  New  Jersey  Historical 
Society.  May  20.  1858,  Vol.  VUI,  121. 


AXD   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENGIXE    IX    AMKRKA.  23 

put  too  much  faith  in  the  '-Old  Man  who  accompanied  us 
(them)  as  a  Pilot,"  or  else  tlie  engine  was  extravagantly  costly 
and  marvelously  effective,  doing  nearly  as  much  service  as 
the  engines  of  either  the  Newark  or  the  Jersey  City  Water- 
Avorks  to-day!*  Tiie  --cSO  hogsheads  in  a  minute"'  clearly 
should  be  eight  hogsheads,  as  already  shown. 

The  engine  was  at  last  set  to  work,  and  so  far  as  his  busi- 
ness engagement  was  concerned  the  young  Englishman  was 
now  at  liberty  to  return  home,  if  he  felt  willing  to  encounter 
once  more  the  dangers  of  the  tempestuous  ocean.  But  he 
had  discovered  such  invaluable  qualities  as  a  practical  en- 
gineer, a  man  of  biisiitcss  capacity,  a  mineralogist,!  and  withal 
a  congenial  companion,  tluit  Col.  Schuyler  was  loath  to  part 
with  him.  ;ind  urged  him  to  make  his  home  in  America,  and 
to  uiuh'i'tai\c  tiic  superintendence  of  the  mine  and  engine. 
But  nu)i-c  pDrciit  influences  still  were  operating  on  the  hand- 
some vouu"-  striino-er.  Throuoh  his  association  with  the 
Schuylers  he  iuid  become  intimate  in  the  family  of  Colonel 
William  Kingsland,  of  New  Barbadoes  Neck,  occupying  the 
plantation  of  three  hundred  acres  next  adjoining  that  of  the 
Sehuvlers. t  The  brio-ht  eves  of  the  beautiful  Mistress  Eliza- 
betli  Kingsland.  daughrei-  of  the  aristocratic  Colonel.  li;id 
long  fascinated  him.  and  it^  is  possible  had  so  dazzled  liini  as 
to  cause  s(unething  of  the  long  delay  in  getting  his  "•  fire-en- 
gine'"  in  suece<srul  operation.  Be  that  as  it  may.  having 
|)ersuade<i  lier  to  enter  into  an  engagement  with  himself,  he 
was    easilv    induced   to  accept   Colonel   Sehuvler's   ott'ei-.   and 


*Tliis  statement  of  Lieut.  Baiig;<  has  been  accepted  without  (luestion  by  subse- 
<iuent  writers,  althougrh  a  moment's  reflection  ought  to  convince  any  one  of  its  in- 
correctness. ••EifJThty  hogrsheacls  in  a  minute  ""  would  be  a  prodigious  discharge 
for  such  a  mine  as  that  of  tlie  Sehuvlers:  it  would  be  at  the  rate  of  nearly  S.lWO.noo 
gallons  daily.  In  18S-.i  the  average  daily  quantity  of  water  pumped  at  the  Newark 
Water-works  near  Belleville  was  0.(iSO,160  gallons  daily,  with  the  most  niiproved 
engines  and  pumps,  costing  .S'W.OOO  yearly  to  operate  and  mauitain. 

t  Alden's  Epitaphs,  ut  supra,  V,  334. 

X  "JBy  will,  datel  .July  -.Jt).  iru.  proved  July  i^<.  Vii-l.  Edmund  Kingsland  gave  to 
his  son  William  three  hundred  acres  ne.vt  adjoining  Schuyler;  also  one-third  of  the 
meadow  and  on»-third  of  the  cedar  swamp."  W.«M/7/  of  flir  Lnnrl  Titles  of  H\"1- 
fnii  Coiintii.  y.  ./..  by  Charles  H.  Winfield.  New  York.  1872.  :WT. 


24  *      .lOSIAH    HORNBLOWER. 

decided  to  take  up  liis  residence  at  Second   River,  marrying 
Miss  Kingsland  m  tliat  saine  year,  1755.*     His  wife,  Avho  was 
five  years  his  junior,  from  licr  motlier  inJicrited  Huguenot 
blood,  and  on  that  side  was  connected  with  some  of  the  most 
distinguished  families  of  French  and  Dutch  descent  in  New 
York — the  De  Riemer,  Coerten,  Selyns,  Drisius,  Steenwyck, 
Gravenraet,  Gonverneur,  and  other  families,  f    On  her  father's 
side  she  was  allied  to  some  men  who  had  l)een  jn-oniinent  from 
an  early  day  in  the  history  of  New  Jersey.     Her  father,   in 
addition  to  his  military  title,  on  which  he  prided  himself, was 
also  a  judge  of  the  Bergen   Common  Pleas. ;{;     Mrs.  Horn- 
lilower  Avas  not  only  tlie  daughter  of  a  judge,  but  the  great- 
ofranddaughter  of  another — William  Pinhorne,  Second  Judge 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  New  Jersey,  in  1704;  and  great-niece 
of  another — Roger  Mompesson,  New  Jersey's  first  Chief  Jus- 
tice, 1704. §     She  was  destined  to  be  the  wife  of  a  judge,  and 
the  mother  of  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  our  Chief  Justices — 
the  late  Joseph  C.  HornbloAver,  the  honored  President  of  the 
New  Jersey  Historical  Society  during  the  first  twenty  years 
of  its  existence. 


*  His  father  wrote  him,  September  3,  1755,  from  "  Near  Birmingham,'"  England, 
directing  his  letter  to  "  Mr.  Josiah  Hornblower,  Fire  Engineer  at  a  Copper  Mine  in 
New  Jersey  in  America,"  and  beginning  thus:  "  Dear  Son— Nine  or  ten  days  since. 
Mr.  Finch  of  Dudley  called  here  and  told  me  he  saw  a  gentleman  in  London  that 
lately  arrived  from  America,  and  gave  him  a  particular  account  of  you,  and  a  very 
agreeable  one,  which  rejoiced  me  very  much ;  moreover  says  you  are  married :  if 
so,  I  heartily  wish  you  and  your  spouse  all  the  happiness  a  marriage  state  is  capa- 
ble of  yielding.'  No  record  has  been  found  of  the  marriage,  but  the  terms  of  this 
letter  and  other  circumstances  confirm  the  statement  that  it  took  place  in  1755. 

t  Margaretta  Coerten,  wife  of  Col.  AVilliam  Kingsland,  was  the  daughter  of  Henry 
or  Henricus  Coerten,  merchant,  of  New  York,  and  Elizabeth  De  Riemer,  married 
in  New  York  May  23,  1701 :  Margaretta.  their  daughter,  was  baptized  Dec.  13,  1704. 
Henricus  Coerten  was  baptized  in  New  York  Dec.  32.  1675,  being  the  son  of  Barent 
Coerten,  of  New  York,  and  Christina  Wessels.  of  Dordrecht,  who  v.'ire  married  in 
New  York  May  30,  1675.    Elizabeth  De  Riemer  was  the  daughter  of  Huybert  De 

Riemer,  who  married  Catharine at  Meuse.  France,  where  their  two  children, 

Elizabeth  and  Isaac,  were  born.— See  Appendix  II  for  fuller  genealogical  notes. 

t  Commissioned  March  8,  17 id.— WinJielcVs  Hudson  Count y.  545-0. 

§  William  Pinhorne's  daughter  Mary  was  married  to  Edmund  Kingsland,  mar- 
riage license  dated  Nov.  8,  1703;  their  son,  William,  born  in  1701,  married  Marga- 
i-etta  Coerten  December  13,  1733.— See  Appendix  II.  Pinhorne's  daughter  Martha 
was  married  Feb.  38,  1703,  to  Chief  Justice  Roger  jMompesson.  Pinhorne  was  a  son- 
in-law  of  Lieut.-Governor  Richard  Ingoldsby,  of  New  Jersey.— Pcoi'iHCiai  Courts  of 
New  Jersey,  by  Richard  S.  Field,  New  York.  1849,  75;  N.  Y.  Gen.  rf:  Biofi.  Record, 
January,  1871,  38;  Winfield's  Hudson  County,  136-7. 


AND   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENttlNE    Ii\    AMERICA.  2o 

Mr.  Honiblower  managed  the  mine  for  something  more 
than  five  years  after  the  engine  was  started,  in  the  interest  of 
the  Schnylers.  Part  of  the  time  (from  May  1,  1759)  he  em- 
ployed John  Sadler,  at  a  salary  of  £50,  or  1125,  per  year,  to 
work  the  engine. 

The  French  and  Indian  war  meantime  had  broken  out,  and 
tlie  little  settlement  abont  the  copper  mine  had  been  |)ro- 
foundly  stirred  by  the  dci)artnre  for  Canada  of  the  gallant 
and  chivalrons  Colonel  Peter  Schuyler,  a  brother  of  Colonel 
dobn  Schuyler,  the  former  having  been  assigned  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  battalion  furnished  by  New  Jersey  for  tbe  occa- 
sion. During  the  winter  of  1755-6  the  enemy  became  so  I)ol(] 
and  menacing  that  great  fears  were  entertained  of  an  invasion 
even  across  the  Delaware.  Pennsylvania  erected  forts  on  the 
west  side,  and  New  Jersey  appropriated  money  and  caused 
forts  and  block-houses  to  be  erected  along  the  chain  of  mount- 
ains skirting  the  east  bank  of  the  Delaware  river,  and  re- 
called Colonel  Schuyler  and  his  battalion  to  man  tliem. 
Additional  incentives  were  offered  to  encourage  enlistments 
for  the  campaign,  which  was  to  be  pressed  toward  the  Can- 
adian frontier  in  the  s})ring,  and  employers  everywhere 
through  New  Jersey  became  so  uneasy  at  the  desertion  of 
their  serving-men  that  they  importuned  the  Legislature  to  re- 
strain the  recruiting  agents.*  A  more  politic  course  was 
pursued  at  the  copper  mine.  The  men  Avere  encouraged  to 
form  a  liome  battalion,  in  wliicli  they  could  exercise  them- 
selves in  military  tactics  to  their  heart's  content,  and  prepare 
themselves  for  really  effective  sei-vice  in  the  field  if  needed. 
Of  this  company,  Mr.  H()rnl)l()\ver  was  commissioned  captain, 
January  26,  1756,  a  marked  compliment  to  the  young  stran- 
ger, and  due  in  a  measure,  no  (loul)t,  not  only  to  Iiis  influen- 
tial   connections,    the    Kingslands   and    the    Sfhnylers.   who 


*History  of  New  Jersey,  by  Thomas  F.  Gordon,  Trenton,  1834,  pp.  123-4;  Sussex 
Centenary,  Newark,  1853,  pp.  31  et  seqq.  Forts  were  erected  about  the  same  time  a  I 
points  far  inland  from  the  Delaware;  one  of  them  was  located  about  where  the 
village  of  Mountain  View  now  is,  on  the  banks  of  the  Pompton  river,  as  appears  by 
an  old  map  in  the  New  Jersey  Histoi-ical  Society's  rooms. 


26  JOSIAH     HORNBLOWER, 

would  liave  weight  with  the  royal  governor,  Belcher,  but  to 
his  own  reputation  as  a  man  of  scientific  attainments  and 
unusual  executive  ability.  On  Jiily  25,  1164,  a  new  commis- 
sion was  issued  to  him,  as  "  Captain  of  Cadets,  including  all 
persons  who  are  or  shall  be  employed  in  the  business  of  the 
mines  on  New  Barbadoes  neck,  and  to  take  rank  from  the 
date  of  your  first  Commission  as  Captain  dated  the  26  day  of 
January,  Anno  Dom.  1T56."* 

In  all  probal>ility  Mr. — or  Captain — Hornblower  took  up  his 
residence  on  the  west  side  of  the  Passaic  river  in  li-^S.  hav- 
ing ])urchased  on  May  1!)  of  that  year  a  tract  of  land  just 
noi'th  i>f  the  |»resent  bridge  over  the  river.  A  year  later  we 
find  him  associated  with  Col.  John  Schuyler,  of  Second  Elver, 
and  others,  in  "  Biles- Island  Lottery,  to  raise  £750  for  the 
Benefit  of  Trinity-Churcli,  at  Newark,  and  towards  building 
a  new  Enf/lish  (Jhurclt  at  Second- River,  consisting  of  5,000 
Tickets,  at  Two  ami  a  half  Spanish  Dollars  each,  1062  <»f 
vviiicli  to  be  fortunate,''  etc.  There  were  1062  prizes  offered: 
one  of  ^'KOOO,  two  of  =^500.  three  of  ^200,  four  of  iilOO. 
twenty  of  .^50,  thirty  of  -i!?20,  two  hundred  of  110,  and  several 
hundred  for  smaller  sums,  aa'jjreo'atino'  $10,625  of  i)rizcs; 
then  there  were  to  he  3,'.)38  l)lanks,  "fifteen  per  ceitl  for  the 
Use  of  the  Church,  (*)!  ,875. "  This  added  to  the  prize-money 
offered.  $in.(;25.  makes  up  tlu'  proceeds  of  the  "  5,000  tickets, 
at  Two  and  a  lialf  Sj)anish  Dollars  each.""  Lottei'ies  were 
lirohihircd  in  New  .lei'sey  at  this  time,  hut  the  good  Church 
people  of  the  day  thought  it  no  iiarni  to  evade  the  spirit  so 
long  as  they  complied  with  the  h'tter  of  the  law.  ;ind  thei'e- 
fore  many  of  the  drawings  of  sncdi  lotteries  wei-e  ;id  vert  isiMJ 
to  take  place  on  Biles  Island,  ami  other  plact's.  just  i)eyond 
the  limits  of  the  State. f  Accordingly,  it  w;i-  announced  in 
the  case  of  this  lottery  that  ■•  the  drawing  (was)  to  commence 
at    Hilrs-lslaiid,   the   lirst    of   Auii'ust    next.'"     "Col.   Josiah 


"  Origrinal  oonunission.  in  possession  of  .Judge  Bradley. 

t  Contributions  to  the  Early  History  of  Perth  Amboy.  ut  supra,  ;Wl-'5. 


AM>    I  hi;   kihhT  hteam-i;n';ink   i\    wikhk  a.  T{ 

O/zdrii,    Ihiiml    I'ici-.iii,     lv-(|.:     (i:il)ricl    (>;'(|fh,   ;il    .Ni'w.'irk; 

Cjol.  .(dim  Scliliylcr,  ;ii{(|  ( ';i|)|;||||  .lo-liih  I  I  oiri  illdWcl'.  ;it 
Sf'C()iiil  l>i\iT.  :iii'  In  li;i\c  llic  In  |n(:ti(p|i  ;iiii|  \|;iii;i"<  mcii  |  ,,1' 
llic   IjMtlcr\,   fll|(|    will    \\v   IIImIci-  <(iil  h    lor  I  lie  (ji;  rli.-iigc  <,|    Mm  II' 

TniHL     TifkctH  lo  hf  hud    of   Ihc    MiiiiiiMr'inciii,  u.l,    llicii    i< 

HpCctlM'    Dwclllli;'--.   (if   Col.     I'oKJ. 111(1    ('.11,1.    I',;iV!U'(|h   ill     \loriiM 

coiiiil  V,"  <lc.*      \Ii.    I  loiiililoucr   \V!ii-  !i    Hiiidinl    liitti-^fll,    Iml 

llJH     uilV      \V!I-     ;ill      I'll)!  copilliuil,    !l,l|(|      IkMICC      llii-     cull     lllHlll     ill 

UiJM  projce;!,,  ill  vvliicli,  iii(ii'(u»v(^l',  llin  FihimI.  <'o|,  .lulm  .Srliiiv- 

Id',    fi'l  I    ;i    jiccii  li;i  I'   ml  ciT-il .  t 

*  N<iw  York  f/iizrilr,  May  MH,  1751),  '{'In'  <li'<iwlrif{  'll'l  i(<»l,  Ink"'  |;»|(M''i  iirtlll  <-U'Ut\tor, 
t,h'^  "  forMifKit^' tminh'TM  "  h'-lriK 'iii'i'»iiii''<'<l  Id  f,(i<'  (Ihzi'IIp  <tt  Oi-t,  !«,  \'itM.  "All 
IKM'Niiim  timl  hav(<  ll<*k(>l,H  Hi  New  York  «lt<ri<'<l  hy  f.'olonel  Hohiiylcr  or  Mr,  Horrt- 
hlowi'r  (ire  rl<fHlri'fl  to  w'tlli- vvifli  Mr.  John  lll<;h<irilN,"  Thl«  lot,(.««ry  <Io<'m  not  ««*•'»( 
U>  Iwivo  r<-all/,<''l  lh<!  liopuM  of  lt,M  pro.|i!<;l,orf<,  for  In  tin'  I'oHtwtHpl,  U>  iln-  N<'w  Y'trlt 
(tii.r.ptlr  of  .Nov,  H'l,  S'iTt'.t,  Ih  IIi<>  follfiwltij!;  ii'lvi-rllMrinonl  :  "  Wlifr<"(i:i  III'-  InhdhllnnlB 
of  H<'i;orii|  Klvi-r,  'I'^nilMT'ti  of  lln- riiiir<:li  of  KnKl'i'i'l,  duvi'  iui<i<'il(il(<'ti  to  hiill'l  « 
(;hur<;li  t.h<'r<' for  llio  f 'I'lchnillon  of  l)lvln<*  WoiMdlp;  un'l  th'-lr  I'roporMon  of  Ki'' 
I'rofllH  of  ih<!  I/oUi-ry,  liildy  rlniwn  for  tli<'  li<!n<'ni  of  l,h<'  (Jhurch'-M  of  ,N<iw»irk  (in'l 
H»'<;otiil  Ulvr<r.  hchiK  tnii  Thr<'''  Mnnilr<'<l  (iimI  Fifty  I'oiindw.  (ln<l  f,lii'ni!*«'lv<*M  iin<l<'r  n 
Ni'CfMMlly  of  ••ri'ctlriK  ii  l,oii<-rv  for  t,lM'rrm>Hvf^M,  In  or<l''r  fiirUi"f  lo  <ihmI«I,  t,h>»  miU\ 
InhulilttitilH  of  H'lroijil  (tlvfir.who  iir<'  K''n<'r(illy  In  very  low  fMrcnrnt-itun'-ew.  t,<>  <;iirry 
on  t,h<!  aforf'HftId  jjooil  Work,  An<l  ivi  llii*r«  iiv  no  prlvntx-  Vlew«  In  i<r<'filntf  -iik'Ii  <i 
l/ol,M)ry,  (till,  pin'i'ly  (Jm-  Honor  of  Uo'l,  ii.n<l  l,ln'  Ooo<l  of  M«inkl>i<l,  II  U  nol  <loi)ht>''l 
tint  thiM  (iloim  [)<'MlKn  will  rn<*<!l  wlUi  lill  pownllde  En«onrttK'irn"nl,  from  ttll  w<')l  <\W 
poHfiil  pi-rnotiM  Hiil'l  l,iill''ry  l,o ''onMlMl  of  r»,<XM)'('lrk<'t,«(ll  I  woilrxl  (1  liulf  Kp(in(«li  l)ol- 
l(irM,"  (inil  lo  iM'Kin  Iti'-  llrni  of  April  rcxl,  Manft^crn- ''olonel  .(olin  H'-hnyliT. 
Tolon'-I  WlllliiMi  Kln««lttn<l,  of  N'fw  HurlimlowH  N«<!k;  I)(Mi1«'I  ('{••r!*<»n  l'>'i"ii' 
fJdhiicI  Oi/iImm,  \mu\A:  [yon((worl.li,  of  Ni'wurk, 

l-Thc  Hrhnyl'M'H  wi'r>' fr'irn  ttn 'fttrly  <luy  k''""''""*'  ''OMtrJbufoJ'pt  lowar<l  l,b<' sup 
porl  of  Mm-  ll"f'nTri"il  DiiM'li  f.'huii'ti  iii  H"'<:oti<l  Klv<n',  Ahonl  \"tti  Domini"  llii«hoort 
■  ilT'Ti'l^vl  ('.n\  .lohn  H<;liiiyl"r,  tiii'l  In  lliui  y-fir  (in  Kplwiopul  "•on(«r"«fMl<in  wtis 
«alh<'ri'(l  U>ni'Xhfr,  who  wi're  allow"<l,  <m  u  <'on«j<'H,»ilon  to  f>»l,  H<;liiiyl<rr,  lo  worship 
In  t,h<'  Unt,''li  (Jhiircli  InillrlInK  for  Home  iJmi',  Hehuyler  wm  on"  of  On-  Chnn-t) 
wanlcrm.  lunl  (>>l  WllllHtn  Klnf/«l'»n<l  on"  of  the  v">tf,rymen  of  Trinlly  Ohurcb,  New- 
ark, (uirl  w"r"  niim"<l  rutiont;  iJi"  Ineorp  <iMior«  of  llntt  '■)inr''h  by  t,)»"  ebttH"r 
tcriinl"<l  F"bruiiry  I",  l71<J-7,  (»«  (ipp"(ir>i  liy  ih"  orlsfltial  p-irrlinn'm  In  th"  <,'i)«lo<ly  of 
l»ttnl"l  D'xM.  fC!Wj,,of  Si'wiirk,A<'iii'"hiii^nil(  f'lnir'li  lii'xirtiM,  Mhl  ;  Aiiii'il»<if  ll<" 
(JlfiHMhof  ll-'rf/'H.  Ity  l!"ii,ittmln  C,  Tdylor.  i>A)  ,  New  York  (IH«').  with  MK,  NoU'=» 
by  Ibeldf^'M.  Alofw-n.  K»«|,.  aWi-JdW;  77/'-  lUim  of  Did,  a  Conlriiuhil  mm-oitr)i''.  il" 
lii;c,rrl  hi  Ti-hiili/  churrh,  S<-w<irh,  ,V, ./,,  /ffln-uof//  'U.  IHJ'i,  by  MutUiew  M,  M"n 
•Icrwm,  M.  A  .  ll"etor.  New  York,  H(<i,  )!),  Tlifti  "<"ol  K<;bi)yl"r  wui^al  ib""xp"nw' 
of  rt  l)iil<;b  lui'i  Kns/liMh  lrnpr"««Mlon  of  lb"  I'ornmon  l'r(iy"r  Hook."  ft«  ^ittU^'l  In  Al- 
•len'M  Epitaplm.  Vr,|  V,  <in>l  >|Uol,<*il  by  l/it"r  writers,  !•*  e*l;r"m"ly  bnprobabl"  Tb" 
late  S.  AlofHfsn,  an  ln<l"f(iils<at»le  Uut^jti  m-MoUr  &ni\  antbpJftHan,  mwJe  .IJIIjfenl  in- 
fpilrv  for  yfn,rn  amonK  tb"  Hebiiyler  family  for  a  «!opy  of  lb(«  repoz-U'd  (,ranf*la»lon, 
wHbonl  mixi'nn.  Tb"  T{4'v  1),  W  Ma"ur<ly.  re'itor  of  th"  K/pl!*;opal  (.'bnreh  at  Ojt^ 
frW'l.  N.  Y,.  wraUu  Nov,  a.  IHU'i.  U>  a  lady  at  .f<T,<"y  City,  that  b"  Ii/kI  «""n  at  tb"  for 
m«r  pliu-e  abook  in  Dut^jh.  la«;klnK  titl"  (<»•=£".  whl<;b  h"  tbous<bt  wa»,  a  .-opy  of  tb" 
I'ruyer  B*K)k,  A  tlth-  jias?"  to  the  l'«alt,<!r  hm\  the  Imprint;  "  J»n</on,  <i.«lriikt  bij 
Johan  n"ridri<;k  Hchliller,  MIKTIII  '      MMH.  of  M.  Alo/ifcn.  In  writer's  powKWKlon. 


28  .T0.-5IAH    HOKXBLOWER, 

In  1760  (May  1).  Mr.  Hornblower  leased  from  the  estate  of 
Peter  Bayard*  tlic  late  residence  and  store  of  that  gentleman, 
the  jiroperty  frontino-  on  the  Passaic  river,  next  north  of  the 
Reformed  Dntch  Chnrch,  for  a  distance  of  290  feet,  and  ex- 
tending westerly  32.55  chains,  or  nearly  half  a  mile.  The 
lease  was  for  five  years,  at  £25  per  annnm.f  at  the  end  of 
which  term  it  is  probable  that  he  bonght  it  outright,  as  iie 
always  lived  there  subsequently.  On  May  6,  1760,  he  opened 
his  store,!  wliich  was  doubtless  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
mine  ojoeratives  and  the  growing  population  of  the  neighbor- 
hood. At  the  same  time,  no  doubt,  he  came  into  the  control  of 
the  ferry  which  then  plied  over  the  river,  opposite  his  new 
residence,  and  about  on  the  site  of  the  present  public  bridge.§ 
He  was  thus  becoming  a  man  of  substance  and  importance  in 
the  communitv.     A  vear  or  two  later — in  1761-2 — his  account 


*  Peter  Bayard  was  a  brother-in-law  of  Col.  John  Schuyler,  having  married  the  lat- 
ter's  sister  Eva.  who  died  in  I7'i7.—Winfiehrs  Hudson  Covnty,  .")tl.  He  was  probably 
the  son  of  Petrus  Bayard  and  Rachel  Van  Baal,  and  baptized  in  the  Dutch  Church, 
New  York,  August  14,  1700.— A".  F.  Gen.  and  Biog.  Bee,  Oct.,  1878.  p.  156. 

+  Original  lease,  in  possession  of  Mr.  Justice  Bradley.  The  deed  is  lost.  Peter 
Bayard  had  bought  this  property  in  1738  from  Col.  John  Schuj  ler.— Judf/e  Bradley. 
Feb.  14.  17iT,  Hans  Spier  sold  the  home-lot  of  this  property.  294  feet  front  on  the 
river  and  100  feet  deep,  to  Arent  Schuyler,  who  gave  it  (Julj'  1, 1720)  to  his  son, 
JohnSchujier.— ••  iJecord  o/ Z)eed.5 /roni  ^prfZ,  1728,"  Essex  Coimty.  folios  10-12. 
Spier  was  a  son  of  John  Hendrick  Speare,  one  of  the  fourteen  patentees  of  Acquack- 
anonk  in  1684-5 ;  he  was  baptized  April  2.  1663.  In  June,  17G5,  3Ir  Hornblower  bought 
a  tract  of  fourteen  or  fifteen  acres,  and  in  1770  he  added  100  acres  more  to  his 
possessions. 

i  Original  account-books,  in  Judge  Bradley's  possession. 

§  The  New  York  (?a«eife  of  February  17,  1755.  contains  this  advertisement:  "'To 
be  L?tt  the  Ferry  across  the  Passaic-River  in  East  Jersey,  together  with  a  large 
stone  ferry  house,  and  stable,  convenient  to  entertain  travellers;  as  also  a  good 
garden  to  the  same  belonging:  it  is  pleasantly  situated,  directly  opposite 
(Jolonel  John  Schuyler's  dwelling  house,  and  within  a  mile  both  of  Jlessrs.  Schuy- 
ler's and  Lucas's  copper  mines,  which  are  both  at  work;  and  in  the  way  of  all  the 
mines,  and  travellers.  Whoever  inclines  to  lease  the  same,  either  for  one  year,  or 
a  longer  term,  may  apply  either  to  Stephen  V.  Cortlandt,  living  near  the  premises, 
or  to  John  V.  Cortlandt,  in  the  city  of  New  York.'"  "Colonel  John  Schuyler's 
dwelling  house,"  which  is  still  standing  in  fine  preservation,  was  erected  in  1740. 
The  old  Schuyler  house,  a  frame  building,  with  a  mill  near  it  and  a  boat-house, 
stood  near  the  river  bank,  and  had  been  destroyed  by  fire  shortly  before  the  erec- 
tion of  the  present  manor  house  in  a  more  commanding  position.  For  these  state- 
ments the  writer  is  indebted  to  J.  Schuyler  Anderson.  Esq.,  of  New  York.  The  ref- 
erence in  the  advertisement  quoted  above,  to  "  all  the  mines."  perhaps  needs  a 
word  of  explanation.  The  route  from  New  York  to  the  mines  of  Morris  county  and 
to  th3  Rinj7.-ood  min3^,'then  in  the  uppsr  part  of  Bergen  county.^was  quite  as.di- 
rect  via  Second  River  as  by  any  other  com^e. 


AKD    THE    FIRST   STEAM-EXGIKE    IX    AMERICA.  29 

books  show  that  he  took  a  leading  part  in  the  erection  of  a 
new  school-lionse  at  Second  River,  and  tluit  he  was  permitted 
to  pay  a  large  share  of  the  cost  ont  of  his  own  ])ocket.  His 
new  dwelling  was  a  plain  })nt  spacious  and  comfortable  stone 
building,  which,  altered  somewhat,  princii)ally  by  encasing 
the  stout  stone  walls  with  weather-boards  and  the  substitution 
of  a  mansard  roof  for  the  ancient  sloping  eaves,  has  been  for 
many  years  occupied  as  a  public  house,  its  quondam  promi- 
nence and  character  behig  ijidicated  by  its  name,  "  The  Maii- 
sion  House." 

As  already  stated,  Mr.  Hornhlower  worked  the  coppei-  mine 
for  the  Scliuylers  for  several  years.  On  July  1,  1761,  he  and 
one  John  .Stearndall*  took  a  lease  of  the  mine  from  the 
Schuylers  for  the  term  of  fourteen  years,  agreeing  to  pay  one- 
seventh  of  the  ore  as  rent,t  the  lease  being  subsequently  ex- 
tended for  ten  years  longer.  March  25,  1765,  Messrs.  Stearn- 
dall and  Hornblower  assigned  half  of  their  interest  to  Phila- 
delphia parties— John  Kid,  William  Parr,  Judah  Fouke  and 
William  Dowell.  After  two  or  three  years  the  Pliiladel})hians 
retired,  and  no  work  ai)])ears  to  have  been  done  in  1768  and 
1769.  Then  Xew  York  parties  became  interested,  and  the 
mining  was  carried  on  until  1773,  when  the  engine-house  was 
destroyed  by  tire,];  damaging  the  engine  and  so  effectually 


*  stearndall  would  seem  to  have  been  a  capitalist  desirous  of  investing  in  mining 
property.  He  entered  into  an  agreement.  November  35. 1761 ,  with  NewYork  parties 
•'  relative  to  obtaining  a  grant  for  some  mines,  supposed  to  be  in  the  provinces  of 
New  York,  Connecticut  or  New  Jersey."— iV.  Y.  Hist.  MSS.,  English,  737. 

t  One-third  of  the  rental  was  paid  to  Col.  John  Schuyler,  one-third  to  Col.  Peter 
Schuyler,  and  one-third  to  Adonijah  Schuyler,  the  sons  of  Arent  Schuyler,  who  had 
left  the  mimitothcm.— Hornblower  Account-books  in  possession  of , Judge  Bradley. 

t  Gordon  gives  the  date  as  1765,  and  says  that  "a  workman,  who  had  been  dis- 
missed, having  set  fire  to  the  engine-house,  the  works  were  discontinued."— Gaz- 
ttteer,  11.  Lieut.  Bangs,  lit  suiyra,  states  that  at  the  time  of  his  visit,  in  June.  1776, 
■'  notliing  had  been  done  in  these  Mines  for  4  years,  the  Engine  having  been  burnt 
about  that  Time.""  The  absence  of  any  accounts  with  the  mine  after  1773  indicates 
that  the  laiter  year  is  most  probably  the  time  when  the  fire  took  place.  Corrobo- 
rative proof  is  found  in  the  fact  that  the  Legislature  in  1773  passed  a  law  sanctioning 
a  lottery  to  raise  £1,050  proclamation  money,  to  put  gravel  on  the  road  built  some 
years  previously  by  Col.  John  Schuyler  at  his  own  expense,  for  tliree  uales  through 
the  cedars  and  the  meadows,  between  Second  River  and  tlie  main  road  to  New- 
York;  the  money  raii-ed  frcm  the  lottery  was  to  be  paid  to  Josiah  Hornblower.  to 


30  .lOSIAH     HORNBLOWER, 

discouraging  the  lessees  that  all  work,  except  some  surface 
digging  by  the  men,  was  abandoned  for  twenty  years.  Dur- 
ing the  few  years  that  the  mine  had  l)een  worked  under  the 
lease,  the  operations  do  not  a})pear  to  have  been  at  all  profit- 
able, and  indeed  the  books  indicate  that  the  expenses  often  ex- 
ceeded the  income.  Mr.  Hornblower's  account-books  show 
the  receipts  from  the  mine  to  have  been  as  follows,  for  the 
years  named:  1765,  £'G70,  Ts.,  \h\..  New  York  money,  or  in 
dollars,  ll,G7fi;  in  ITGG,  §4,357.8;;  1770,  $4,785:  1771, 
$7,787;  177:.^,  $1,23:;  17^3,  $3,855.  The  ore  realized  from 
eight  to  ten  dollars  ])er  liundred-weight. 

The  troublous  times  ])receding  the  Revolution  were  well 
calculated  to  discourage  :in  enterprise  of  this  magnitude,  and 
this  IK)  doubt  was  one  reason  why  no  effort  was  made  imme- 
iliatelv  to  rebuild  the  engine-house  after  the  fire  of  1773.     8o 


for  a  time  Mr.  Hornblower  devoted  himself  closely  to  mer- 
cantile pursuits,  and,  his  tastes  being  preferably  for  mechanics 
and  purely  business  concerns,  he  does  not  seem  to  lutve  taken 
any  part  in  public  affairs  until  after  the  war  of  the  Revolution 
had  fairly  begun.  At  the  Newark  town-meeting,  March  12, 
177G,  he  was  appointed  on  ;i  committee  of  twenty-one  promi- 
nent citizens  of  the  town* — for  what  purpose  is  not  stated, 
l)ut  probably  in  relation  to  the  pending  war.  In  1778  he  was 
chosen  one  of  the  commissioners  of  appeal  in  cases  of  taxa- 
tion.f  and  in  March,  1779,  was  designated  by  the  town-meet- 
ing as  one  of  a  committee  of  five  to  present  the  interests  and 
views  of  the  town  to  the  Leoislature.J  In  this  capacity  he 
represented  the  people  so  well  that  the  great  county  of  Essex 


be  by  him  issued  to  William  Dow  and  Arent  J.  Schuyler,  the  three  to  report  to  the 
Legislature  when  the  work  was  done.  This  act  was  passed  Sept.  26,  1772,  but  did 
not  receive  the  royal  assent  until  April  13.  1774.— AUinsoii's  Laws.  385.  and  contem- 
porary minutes  of  the  Legislature.  (The  law  took  effect,  however,  from  the  date 
of  its  passage. )  It  is  doubtful  if  this  law  would  have  been  sought  for  had  the  copper 
mine  been  idle  at  the  time.  Mr.  Hornblower,  in  later  years,  told  his  son.  the  Chief 
Justice,  that  he  surveyed  this  road  through  the  swamp  about  the  year  1T65,  and  that 
1  he  cedar  thicket  was  so  dense  that  a  way  had  to  be  cut  with  axes,  and  lanten»s 
used  in  the  day-time,  in  making  the  survey. 

*  Records  of  the  Town  of  Newark.  New  Jersey.  Newark,  1864.  }h8. 

t  lb.,  158. 

Jib..  1.59. 


AXD    THE    FIRST    STRAM-EXfUXE    TX    AMERICA.  31 

a  few  months  later  sent  him  as  one  of  her  three  memhers  to 
the  Assembly,  or  lower  house  of  the  Provincial  Congress.  It 
seems  surprising  that  a  man  with  so  little  previous  experience 
in  ])ublic  life  should  have  taken  at  once  the  leading  part  that 
Mr.  llornhlower  did  in  the  Legislature.  It  is  convincing  proof 
of  his  sui)ei'ioi'  ability  and  foi'ce  of  character.  It  would  appear, 
too,  that,  as  the  war  progressed,  it  aroused  in  him  a  class  of 
emotions  which  had  hitherto  lain  dormant  for  want  of  occa- 
sion to  develop  them — drawing  him  from  his  absorbed  inter- 
est in  the  merely  utilitarian,  to  enlist  his  whole  heart  and  sou  1 
in  the  canse  of  hunuinity.  AVe  saw  many  a  like  instance  in 
the  late  war  of  the  Rebellion,  when  thousands  of  men  wlio 
had  been  intent  only  on  money-gettino-.  or  in  literarv  or 
scientilic  pui'suits.  threw  all  aside  at  their  country's  call. 
''  Righteousness  exalteth  a  nation."*  and  so  long  as  our 
country  in-eserves  righteousness  enough  to  merit  it.  she  wdl 
Hnd  an  inexhaustible  fund  of  patriotism  u])ou  which  to  draw 
i]i  time  of  need. 

Taking  his  seat  in  the  Legislature  which  met  at  Trenton 
on  October  26.  1770.  three  days  later  there  was  a  heated  de- 
bate over  a  joint  resolution  of  the  Council,  calling  upon  Isaac 
Collins,  the  publisher  of  the  JVeir  Jer.^fi/  Gazeffc,  to  furnish 
the  name  of  the  author  of  a  communication  signed  "  Cincin- 
natus,"  published  in  No.  iHJ.f  which  the  supersensitive  Coun- 


*  One  of  the  mottoes  of  the  East  Jersey  Proprietors,  incorporated  in  the  seal  of 
the  New  Jersey  Historical  Society.-fff.s^  Jersei/  under  the  Proprietary  Govern- 
ments, by  William  A.  Whitehead,  2d  ed..  Newark.  187.5.  181;  Proc.  N.  J.  Hist.  .So,;.. 
Nov.,  1846,  p.  3. 

tMinutes  of  the  Legislature,  passim.  The  article  in  question  was  printed  m  the 
Gazette  of  Wednesday.  October  27.  1779,  four  days  before  the  annual  election  of 
Governor  by  the  Legislature,  and  was  manifestly  intended  to  affect  tlie  result 
of  the  election.  Pretending  to  give  advice  to  that  body  in  selecting  a  Chief 
Magistrate,  the  writer  indulged  in  a  most  caustic  attaclc  on  tlie  course  of  Governor 
William  Livingston,  ridiculing  his  very  promiscuous  contributions  to  the  newspa- 
pers on  all  occasions,  and  even  going  so  far  as  to  intimate  that  at  the  outbrealv  of 
the  Revolution  Livingston  had  hesitated  before  deciding  to  risk  his  fortune  in  tlie 
patriot  cause.  The  article  was  exceedingly  severe,  and  to  one  who  prided  himself 
as  Livingston  evidently  did  on  his  literary  abilities,  the  criticisms  on  his  writmgs 
must  have  wounded  his  amowr  fropre  almost  as  much  as  the  imputations  on  his 
patriotism.  While  it  is  not  certainly  known  who  -  Cincinnatus  ■  was.  the  internal 
evidences  point  very  strongly  toward  Abraham  Clark,  an  eager  and  ambitious  pol- 


32  -  JOSIAH    HORJfBLOWEE, 

cillors  regarded  as  objectionable,  although  the  printer  insisted 
that  it  "did  not  contain  the  most  distant  disrespectful  allusion 
to  that  honorable  body.'"*  The  resolution  was  viewed  by  the 
Assembly  as  a  blow  at  the  liberty  of  the  press,  and  they  re- 
fused to  concur  in  its  adoption,  Mv.  Hornblower  voting 
agaii.st  it.  On  November  3,  when  barely  a  week  in  the  Leg- 
islature, and  layman  as  he  was,  he  was  appointed  on  a  com- 
mittee of  three  to  draft  a  new  general  election  law;  and  his 
business  capacity  and  sterling  integrity  were  recognized  the 
week  following  bv  his  selection  as  one  of  the  committee  to 
settle  the  treasurer's  accounts— a  duty  which  was  assigned  to 
him  many  times  subsequently.  His  zeal  in  the  prosecution 
of  the  war  was  shown  by  his  votes  in  favor  of  every  measure 
that  would  help  the  patriots  and  harass  their  enemies.  AVhen 
the  Assembly  voted  to  raise  89,000,000  for  war  puri)oses 
(JS'ov.  20.  17T9),  he  favored  §10,000,000.  (This  was  paper 
money,  be  it  remembered.)      Although  his  wife's  brother, 


itieian  of  Elizabethtown,  as  the  author  or  at  least  the  inspirer  of  the  commuxiiea- 
tion.  It  was  extremely  gratifying  to  the  Governor  and  his  friends  that  on  the  Sat- 
urday following  this  publication,  when  the  Legislature  met  in  joint  meeting  to 
choose  a  Governor,  Livingston  received  29  votes,  to  only  9  against  him  (for  Phile- 
mon Dickinson).  He  exultinglj-  commented  on  the  fact  in  a  letter  to  a  friend:  "'My 
enemies  liave  been  so  much  disappointed  at  the  last  election  for  governor,  that  with 
all  their  groundless  slanders,  and  the  dirty  libel  they  published  against  me.  they 
could  only  muster  9  negatives  to  29  afifirmatives.''— ^Vewio/r  of  the  Life  of  William 
Livingston,  by  Theodore  Sedgwick,  Jun.,  New  York,  18.32,  839.  Washington  con- 
doled with  him:  •■  I  have  not  seen  the  piece  to  which  you  allude,  but  I  should  be 
much  surprised  had  you  been  suffered  to  escape  without  paying  a  tax  so  ancient 
and  customary.  *  *  *  I  believe  with  you  that  to  persevere  in  one's  duty,  and  be 
silent,  is  the  best  answer  to  calumny.'' — lb.,  'ii3.  Livingston  was  greatly  offended 
at  Collins  for  having  published  the  article,  but  subsequently  became  reconciled  to 
him.  and  again  contributed  freely  to  his  paper.— /6..  344-5.  248-9.  It  is  very  probable 
that  the  action  of  the  Council  iu  seeking  to  ascertain  the  identity  of  "  Cincinnatus"' 
was  taken  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Governor.  It  shows  the  independence  of  Mr. 
Hornblowers  character,  that  while  he  voted  for  Livingston  on  thisasonsubsecjuent 
occasions,  he  refused  to  punish  the  printer  who  had  published  the  attack  on  tlie 
executive. 

*  Selections  from  the  Correspondence  of  the  Executive  of  Mew  Jersey,  from  1776 
to  1780,  Newark,  1848,  109-200.  Collins  said  in  reply  to  the  Council:  •■  Were  I  to  com  - 
ply  with  the'requisition  contained  in  this  resolution,  witliout  the  permission  of  tlie 
author  of  the  piece  alluded  to,  I  conceive  I  should  betray  tlie  trust  reposed  in  me, 
and  be  far  from  acting  as  a  faithful  guardian  of  the  liberty  of  the  press.  I  may 
further  say  that  I  am  entirely  at  a  loss  to  conjecture  upon  what  ground  this  requi- 
sition has  been  made:  for  it  is  evident  tliat  tlie  piece  in  que.stion  does  not  contain 
the  most  distant  disi'espectful  allusieiu  to  your  honorable  body." 


AND    THE    FIEST    STEAM-ENGINE    IX    AMERICA.  33 

Edmund  William  Kiiigsland^  and  the  hitter's  wife  and  her 
father  (Capt.  John  Richards),  sympathized  with  the  British 
to  such  an  extent  that  they  could  not  stay  within  the  Ameri- 
can lines,*  Mr.  Hornblower  nevertheless  acted  as  chairman 
(Not.  25  and  Dec.  24,  1 779)  of  a  committee  of  the  Assemhly 
to  make  more  stringent  and  eifective  the  "'Act  to  prevent 
subjects  of  this  State  from  going  into  or  coming  out  of  the 
enemy's  lines,'"  and  he  voted  (Nov.  30)  to  disfranchise  tories 
or  traitors;  and  so  little  sympathy  had  he  with  cowardice  in 
any  form  that  he  opposed  omitting  the  administration  of  the 
"iron-clad  "  oath  to  members  of  the  Legislature  who  had  re- 
moved from  their  county  to  avoid  the  enemy.  He  believed 
that  all  property  should  pay  its  share  of  the  public  burdens, 
and  opposed  any  exemptions  from  taxation.  At  the  same 
time  he  was  averse  to  allowing  merchants  or  farmers  to  take 
advantage  of  the  popular  necessities  to  charge  exorbitant 
prices  for  their  goods  or  products,  and  so  he  was  always  found 
voting  for  acts  of  the  Legislature  to  regulate  prices,  to  pre- 
vent extortion.  Such  laws  have  never  been  effective,  in  prac- 
tice, but  they  were  favored  in  those  days  by  the  patriots  as  a 
part  of  the  necessary  war  legislation  of  the  time.  Adam 
Smith's  essays  on  the  laws  of  political  economy  were  then 
scarcely  known  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic.  At  the  same 
session  (Feb.  2(5,  1780),  he  was  one  of  the  committee  to  draft 
a  bill  ■•  for  completing  the  quota  of  troops  belonging  to  the 
State,  in  the  service  of  the  United  States,"  and  a  week  later 
(March  3,  1780),  helped  to  pass  the  bill.  Consistently  with 
his  hatred  of  tories,  and  his  sympathy  with  all  patriots,  he 
voted  in  favor  of  permitting  the  zealous  chaplain,  the  Hev. 
James  Caldwell,  and  his  houseless  congregation  at  Elizabeth- 
town,  Avhose  church  and  parsonage  had  been  destroyed  by 
the  Bi-itish,t  to  use  the  dwelling  of  a  citizen   who  was  then 


*AVinfiel(ls  Hudson  County.  546;  Minutes  of  the  Council  of  Safety  of  the  State 
of  New  Jersey  in  1777.  Jersey  City.  187-^'.  pp.  83-4,  108.  See  also  the  Neiv  Jersey  Ga- 
zette, July  i-'S,  1779. 

+  On  the  uight  of  January  25,  1780.— .Veit-  Jersey  Journal,  January  vr7.  1780. 

3 


34  JOSIAU    HOKSBLOWKK. 

with  the  enemy.  Re-elected  to  the  Assembly  in  1780,  Mr^ 
Hornblower  was  chosen  Speaker  of  that  body,  which  then  in- 
cluded some  of  the  ablest  men  of  the  State.  In  this  as  iti  the 
former  session,  his  vote  Avas  invariably  recorded  in  favor  of 
every  measure  calculated  to  promote  an  energetic  and  elective 
prosecution  of  the  war,  the  aid  and  comfort  of  the  patriots, 
and  the  harassing  of  the  enemy  and  bis  sympathizers.  The 
proceedings  of  the  Legislature  of  those  days  seem  strangely 
like  the  doings  of  that  body  twenty  years  ago.  As  might 
have  been  expected,  Mr.  ILorublower's  relentless  vigor  in 
pressing  the  enemy,  and  now  his  prominence  as  Speaker  of 
the  Assembly,  made  him  a  conspicuous  figure,  whom  the 
British  and  their  tory  allies  would  fain  have  captured  or 
killed.  He  was  hated,  persecuted  and  pursued  almost  to  the 
death  by  refugees,  some  of  whom  had  been  his  neighbors  and 
friends  in  former  times,  and  on  several  occasions  he  nearly 
fell  a  victim  to  their  vindictive  thirst  for  vengeance.  An  in- 
cident illustrating  the  dangers  to  which  he  was  continually 
subject,  is  thus  related  in  the  Xeir  Jer.^eif  frazrffe  of  April 
4,  1781: 

•' Thursday  last*  a  party  of  the  enemy  from  New  York  attempted  to 
carry  o£E  the  Honourable  Josiah  Hornblower,  Esq.  Speaker  of  the  Assem- 
bly of  this  »S/«/f'.— They  were  in  the  habit  of  peasants,  and  personated 
Jersey  militia.  In  this  manner  they  came  to  the  ferry  nearly  opposite  his 
house  in  Essex  county,  and  called  for  the  l)oat,  which  was  carried  over  to 
them,  ihe  people  not  suspecting  their  villany.  The  ferryman,  on  his  ar- 
rival, observed  G.  R.f  on  theu-  cartouche  boxes,  and  therefore  on  his  re- 
turn, with  some  address,  let  the  boat  fall  down  the  stream  with  the  tide, 
in  order  to  give  a  hint  to  Mr.  Homblower's  family  that  all  was  not  right. 
This  had  the  desired  effect:  Mr.  Hornblower  escaped  out  of  the  back  door 
a  few  minutes  prior  to  their  coming  in  at  the  front.  Two  of  the  villains 
pursued  him  and  were  taken.  The  others  got  off,  after  making  Mr.  Horn- 
blowers  son-in-law,  Mr.  Cape,:|:  prisoner — who  has  since  returned  on 
parole." 


*  March  29,  1781. 

t  Georgius  Rex. 

t  This  was  James  H.  Kip,  who  had  married  Mr.  Hoitiblower's  eldest  daughter. 
Margaretta.  At  this  time  lie  appears  to  have  been  managing  the  ferry  for  his 
father-in-law. 


AND   THE    FIEST   STEAM-ENGINE    IN    AMERICA.  35 

The  Neio  Jersey  Journal,  published  at  Elizabethtown,  of 
the  same  date,  has  this  account  of  the  affair: 

"  Last  Thursday  morning  about  twenty  refue:ees  came  to  the  fei-ry  at 
Second  River,  and  hailed  the  boat  to  bring  them  over,  saying  they  were 
Hackensack  militia ;  upon  which  Mr.  James  Kiji,  supposing  it  to  be  so, 
carried  the  boat  over,  when  they  made  hmi  prisoner,  and  proceeded  to  this 
shore,  in  order,  as  is  supposed,  to  capture  the  Hon.  Josiah  Hornblower, 
Esq. ;  but  he  fortunately,  though  very  narrowly,  made  his  escape.  The 
neighborhood  assembling,  the  enemy  thought  it  prudent  to  retire  with  pre- 
cipitation ;  however,  they  paid  for  their  temerity,  two  of  the  party  being 
made  prisoners." 

According  to  tradition,  Mr.  Kip  threw  his  oars  into  the 
water  as  he  neared  the  shore,  and  shouted  to  Mr.  Hornblower, 
who  Avas  standing  on  his  porch,  ready  to  welcome  the  visitors, 
"Father,  the  British!"  whereupon  Mr.  II.  escaped.  It  is 
also  said  that  the  enemy  made  a  thorough  search  of  the  house, 
either  for  the  owner  or  for  valuables,  and  actually  set  fire  to 
the  building,  but  were  persuaded  to  desist  by  Mrs.  Kip,  and 
left  the  house  with  apologies.  She  had  had  the  presence  of 
mind  to  hide  the  family  silver,  and  for  this  service  it  after- 
ward went  to  her,  some  of  it  being  yet  in  the  possession  of 
her  descendants.  One  large  goblet,  still  in  existence,  had 
belonged  to  Edmund  Kingsland,  Mrs.  Hornblower's  grand- 
father. 

After  two  years  of  service  in  the  lower  branch  of  the  Legis- 
lature, Mr.  Hornblower  was  "  called  up  higher,''  the  people 
of  the  county  manifesting  their  appi'oval  of  his  course  and 
their  confidence  in  his  ability  by  electing  him  to  represent 
them  in  the  Council,  or  upper  branch  of  the  Legislature.  He 
took  his  seat  October  37,  1781,  and  two  days  later  was  deputed 
to  settle  the  treasurer's  accounts.  In  this  body,  as  in  the 
lower,  work  was  often  assigned  to  him  that  properly  pertained 
to  the  legal  profession,  indicating  that  he  was  thought  to  pos- 
sess unusual  knowledge,  for  a  layman,  of  what  the  law  ought 
to  be.  For  example,  "  an  act  for  the  relief  of  persous  who 
have  lost  their  deeds  and  other  instruments  of  writing,  con- 
taining the  title  of  their  lands."  after   being  read   a  second 


'S(y  JOSIAH     HOHXRI.OWKK. 

rime,  was  cominitted  to  Mr.  Hornblower  (Nov.  3.  IT81),  and 
wiien  he  reported  it,  at  the  next  session,  with  amendments, 
thev  were  all  agreed  to  but  one,  bv  both  houses  (Sept.  26, 
1782).  It  is  true  tjiat  many  laymen  believe  they  could  draft 
laws  better  tliaii  the  members  of  the  bar.  but  experience 
seldom  ju>ti1ies  that  belief.  In  1783  (June  11),  be  voted  with 
the  majority  against  a  proposed  modification  of  the  Articles 
of  Confederation  (Art.  VIII).  relating  to  the  raising  of  reve- 
nue, until  the  ratifying  act  had  been  acceptably  amended 
(June  11).  June  14  he  voted  witii  the  Council  to  adopt  the 
remonstrance  and  protest  of  the  Assembly  against  the  con- 
ditional cession  by  Virginia  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  that 
State  offering  to  cede  part  of  the  territory  in  (juestion  if  Con- 
gress would  guarantee  its  claim  to  the  rest.  The  title  to 
these  Western  lands,  which  were  not  included  within  the 
boundaries  of  any  of  the  colonies,  and  were  consequently  re- 
garded as  Crown  lands,  had  been  a  vexed  question  from  the 
beginning  of  the  Eevolution.  and  New  Jersey  Jiad.  indeed 
(June  16,  17T8),  refused  to  ratify  the  Articles  of  Confedera- 
tion because  the  ownershi))  of  these  laiuls  had  not  been  se- 
cured to  the  Congress  of  all  the  States,*  and  in  December, 
]?80,  sent  another  remonstrance  to  Congress  on  the  subject.! 
The  resolutions  of  1783  say:  "'We  cannot  be  silent,  while 
viewing  one  State  aggrandizing  herself  by  the  unjust  Deten- 
tion of  that  Property  which  has  been  i)rocured  by  the  common 
Blood  and  Treasure  of  the  Whole,  and  which,  on  every  Prin- 
ciple of  Eeason  and  Justice,  is  vested  in  Congress  for  the  Use 
and  general  Benefit  of  the  Union  they  represent. ""J  Mrginia 
ultimately  ceded  her  claim  to  the  lands  unconditionally,  thus 
virtually  acknowledging  the  justice  of  the  position  assumed  by 
XeAv  Jersey.  On  June  17,  1783,  Mr.  Hornblower  and  Mr. 
Lawrence  were  named  on  a  joint  committee  of  the  Legislature 


*  Civil  and  Political  History  of  New  Jersej-,  by  Isaac    S.  Multord.  >I.  D.,  Camden 
1848.  451-5. 
+  lb..  469. 
J  Minutes  of  the  Council,  pa*8im. 


AND    THE    FIRST    !^TEAM-EK^TI^-E    FN"    AMERICA.  3? 

to  urge  upon  Congress  the  propriety  of  locating  the  federal 
capital  in  New  Jersey,  and  on  the  second  day  thereafter  Mr. 
Hornblower  "read  the  report  of  the  committee  in  his  place," 
recommending  that  the  Legislature  should  give  Congress  such 
jurisdicti(»n  over  a  district  of  twenty  scpiare  miles  "  as  may 
be  required  by  Congress  as  necessary  for  the  honor,  dignity, 
convenience  and  safety  of  that  august  body.''  and  that  the 
State  should  give  £30,000  in  specie  toward  procuring  lands 
and  erecting  buildings  thereon.  This  report  was  agreed  to 
unanimously.  It  was  a  high  compliment  tluit  Mr.  Horn- 
blower  should  have  been  made  chairman  of  a  committee 
charged  with  so  important  a  mission.  The  subsequent  action 
of  Congress  showed  thnt  the  committee's  labors  had  not  been 
without  effect,  and  for  a  time  there  seemed  a  strong  proba- 
bility that  the  national  capital  would  be  established  in  New 
Jersey.  The  rivalries  of  Philadelphia  and  New  York,  how- 
ever, and  a  com^n-omise  on  the  question  (jf  the  assumption  of 
the  State  debts  by  the  Nation,  overrode  all  advantages  offered 
bv  New  Jersev,  and  secured  the  location  of  the  citv  of  Wash- 
ington  on  the  banks  of  the  Potomac*  At  the  following  ses- 
.sion  of  the  Legislature  Mr.  Hornblower  was  appointed  (Dec. 
16,  1783)  with  Abraham  Clark  and  Adam  Boyd  to  ••  make 
further  in([uiry  into  the  right  of  this  State  to  the  jurisdiction 
of"  Staten  Island,  "now  in  the  possession  of  the  State  of 
New  York" — the  lirst  time  thiit  vexed  (pu'stion  was  raised 
since  the  colonies  liad  become  sovereign  States.  It  was  half  ii 
century  later  ere  a  settlement  was  efiected.  On  August  U). 
1  784,  he  was  appointed  with  Al)raham  Clark  on  a  committee 
to  confer  with  an  Assemblv   committee  regarding  the  recom- 


*  History  of  the  Foitnation  of  tlie  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
l.v  Geoi-fre  Bancroft.  :!<!  e<l..  Xew  York.  1883.  Vol,  I.  m.  180.  Cou^ress  adoptefl  an 
onlinaiu-e  Deo.  iS.  1781.  to  select  a  district  not  less  than  two  nor  more  than  three 
miles  stiuare.  on  the  banks  of  either  side  of  the  Delaware,  not  more  than  eifflit 
miles  above  or  below  the  lower  falls  of  the  Delaware,  lor  the  capital.  -Journal  »/ 
the  American  Co,i(jress  from  1774  to  ItHS.  Washington.  18-.i;l  TV.  CS.  A  full  and  n.- 
teresting  summary  of  the  eftorts  to  locate  the  capital  in  New  .lersey  will  be  t-mn.l 
in  the  ■•  History  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  Trenton.  N.  .1..-  by  .John  Hall.  1)1).. 
New  York.  18.)!».  iXt-W. 


38  J08IAH     HORNBLOWER, 

mendation  of  Congress  for  raising  troops  and  holding  a  treaty 
with  the  Indians.  Four  days  later  he  voted  for  the  bill  o-i\ang 
to  General  the  Baron  Steuben  the  i^riyilege  of  occupying  for 
life  the  confiscated  farm  of  a  Bergen  county  tory;  and  on  the 
25th  of  tlie  same  month  he  voted  to  appropriate  £300  to 
provide  a  house  for  tlie  President  and  Congress  at  Trenton, 
at  their  next  session. 

Summing  up  his  six  years  of  service  in  the  Legislature — 
1779-80  in  the  Assembly,  and  1781-3-3-4  in  the  Council— the 
minutes  of  both  bodies  show  that  he  was  extremely  prompt 
and  attentive  to  his  duties:  that  he  brought  to  their  discharge 
a  wide  knowledge  of  public  affairs,  of  the  interests  of  the 
community,  of  the  popular  wants,  and  of  the  necessities  of 
the  young  State;  a  quick  comprehension  of  the  most  effective 
means  for  accomplisliing  desired  ends,  and  a  dauntless  cour- 
age in  acting  according  to  his  convictions.  He  was  conserva- 
tive, yet  progressive.  He  voted  to  uphold  the  dignity  of  land 
tenure,  as  in  requiring  a  freehold  qualification  for  voters;  de- 
fended the  libei'ty  of  the  press;  favored  a  liberal  compensa- 
tion to  public  officers.  He  believed  in  the  most  energetic 
prosecution  of  the  war,  in  "■  making  treason  odious,"  and  in 
keeping  it  so.  His  frequent  appointment  on  conference  com- 
mittees indicates  that  he  was  a  man  in  whose  honesty  of  jmr- 
pose  both  houses  had  confidence,  and  that  he  had  tlie  ability 
to  impress  his  views  upon  others,  and  to  conciliate  opposition. 

His  record  was  so  satisfactory  to  the  people  of  the  State 
that  on  October  38,  1785,  he  was  chosen  by  the  Legislature 
to  represent  New  Jersey  in  tlie  Congress  of  the  Confedera- 
tion, his  associates  being  Lambert  Cadwallader  and  John 
Cleves  Symmes,  both   men   of  wide  reputation.*     It  is   said 


*  Extract  from  minutes  of  the  Joint  Meeting: 

"October  :i8.  1785:  It  was  Resolved.  That  three  Delegates  be  elected  to  represent 
this  State  in  Congress.  Honourable  Lambert  Cadwallader,  John  Cleves  S3Tnmes 
and  Josiah  Homblower.JEsquires,  appeared  to  be  duly  elected.  Resolved.  That 
the  said  Lambert  Cadwallader.  John  Cleves  Symmes  and  Josiah  Homblower,  or 
any  two  of  them,  be  empowered  to  represent  and  vote  on  behalf  of  this  State  in  the 
Congress  of  the  United  States  of  North  America,  from  the  first  Monday  in  Xovem  - 


AND    THE    FIRST   STEAM-EXGINE    IN    AMERirA.  39 

that  he  was  elected  without  previous  knowledge,  and  when 
the  committee  called  to  apprise  him  of  the  unexpected  honor, 
they  found  him,  in  farmer's  attire,  in  his  fields,  gathering 
corn,  and  with  all  due  ceremony  proceeded  to  address  him 
then  and  there,  and  to  deliver  their  message.*  On  the  first 
day  of  his  term.  Monday,  IS'ovember  7,  1785,  Mr.  HornbloAver 
took  his  seat  in  Congress,  which  then  met  in  the  City  Hall  of 
New  York,  in  Wall  street.  "  The  Congress  Office ''  was  locat- 
ed at  No.  81  Broadway,  corner  of  King  (now  Pine)  street, 
and  the  various  departments  were  scattered  about  the  town  in 
modest  quarters,  as  became  the  impecunious  and  already  tot- 
tering voung  republic. +  There  was  little  opportunity  for  a 
man  to  distinguish  himself  in  such  a  body  as  Congress  was  at 
that  time.  Washington  was  in  retirement  at  Mount  Vernon, 
gazing  with  dark  forebodings  into  the  future  of  his  country; 
Adams  was  far  away,  making  friends  for  the  nation  at  the 
Court  of  St.  James:  Jefferson  was  at  Paris,  trying  to  preserve 
the  good  will  of  the  fickle  French;  Hamilton  had  withdrawn 
in  despair,  after  one  year's  service,  from  a  Legislature  which 


ber  next,  until  the  seventh  day  of  November,  1736,  unless  a  new  Appointment  shall 
sooner  take  place." 

The  Legislature  had  enacted.  December  13,  1783:  "  The  Council  and  Assembly  in 
Joint  Meeting,  at  the  first  Sitting  of  the  Legislature  after  the  annual  Election,  and 
at  any  other  Time  when  the  same  may  be  necessary,  shall  elect  and  choose  any 
Number  of  Delegates  not  less  than  three,  nor  more  than  seven,  to  represent  this 
State  in  the  Congress  of  !he  United  States,  and  shall  agree  upon  the  Form  of  Cre- 
dentials to  be  given  them  of  their  Appointment,  which  Credentials,  signed  by  the 
Chairman  of  the  Joint  Meeting,  shall  authorize  the  said  Delegates  to  sir  and  vote  on 
the  Part  of  this  State,  in  the  Congi-ess  of  the  United  States,  during  the  Year  or 
Time  for  which  they  were  elected,  imless  in  that  Time  superseded  by  a  new 
.Appointment.'"— Sec</o>i  24.  Election  Larv.  Wilson's  Laics,  Trenton.  1784,  p.  :i>'}. 
The  law  contemplated  the  constant  attendance  of  but  two  membei-s  on  the  sittings 
of  Congress,  so  that  one  of  them  could  attend  to  his  private  business;  as  the  voting 
vas  b\-  States,  two  could  represent  New  Jersey  as  well  as  three.  In  Gordon's  His- 
tory of  New  Jersey  it  is  stated  (p.  321),  that  in  1784  William  Churchill  Houston.  John 
Realty.  Samuel  Dick.  Lambert  Cadwallader.  John  Cleves  Symmes  and  Josiah  [I<.rn- 
blow,M-  were  elected  to  Congress.  This  is  an  error  as  to  Symmes  and  Hornblower: 
fliarlcs  Stewart  shoidd  have  Ijeen  included  in  the  list  instead.  Another  oversiglit  of 
Uordon-s  in  the  same  connection  might  be  noted  here.  In  1787  .October  31 ..  W.lhan. 
Paterson  was  elected  to  Congress,  as  he  states,  but  he  neglects  to  mention  that  Mr. 
Patersou  declined,  and  on  November  6.  1787,  Jonathan  Dayton  was  elected  ni  his 
place.— Minutes  of  Joint  Meeting,  passim. 

-Ti-  late  C'i^'f-J"-tic  •  Hornbl.)Wpr  often  rrhitfil  llii-;  in.-ideul, 

+  New  York  Directory  for  178ti. 


40  .TOSIAH    HORXBLOWEK, 

had  no  power  hut  to  recommend  to  other  Legislature?. 
.Tolin  Hancock  was  broken  down  bv  ill  health.  Among 
the  half  hundred  members,  Richard  Henry  Lee,  Charles 
Pinckney  and  David  Ramsay  were  perhaps  at  that  time 
the  most  widely  known.*  So  little  interest  was  taken  in  the 
delibei'ations  of  Congress  that  two  weeks  elapsed  ere 
enough  States  were  represented  to  allow  of  the  election  of  a 
President,  when  John  Hancock  was  chosen  (Xovember  23). f 
It  was  a  month  later  before  any  business  could  be  transa:cted, 
and  almost  the  middle  of  January  Avhen  Congress  settled  down 
to  work.  So  meagre  did  the  attendance  continue  that  on 
January  30,  1786,  a  resolution  was  adopted  "  to  write  to  the 
(xOTernors  stating  the  inconvenience  arising  from  a  want  of  a 
sufficient  number  of  States  to  proceed  on  the  business  of  the 
nation. "J  Day  after  day,  week  in  and  week  out,  Mr.  Horn- 
blower  was  found  in  his  seat  at  roll-call,  waiting  patiently  for 
a  like  punctuality  on  the  part  of  the  other  members.  Few  of 
them  thought  it  worth  while  to  be  regular  in  their  attendance. 
Why  should  they  ?  When  they  met  it  was  only  to  realize 
more  and  more  their  own  impotence.  The  need  of  a  better 
government  became  more  obvious  dailv.  There  was  no  cohc- 
sion  between  the  members  of  the  Confederation.  Each  State 
and  each  section  was  bent  on  liaving  its  own  way,  regardless 
of  what  became  of  the   Union. §     Said  William  Gravson  in  a 


*  The  late  Chief-Justice  Homblower  often  accompanied  his  father  to  New  York 
at  this  time,  and  was  profoundly  impressed  with  the  ilignity  and  ma.iesty  of  the 
Congress:  but  he  was  only  nine  years  old  at  the  time. 

■'•  The  fact  of  Hancock's  election  to  the  Presidency  at  this  time  is  overlooked  in 
most  of  the  biographical  compilations.  He  sent  in  his  i-esiguation  June  5,  1786,  on 
account  of  continued  ill  health,  being  then  confined  to  his  bed.  as  his  letter  to  Con- 
gress explains.  Mr.  Bancroft  erroneously  states  (Hist.  Const..  I,  lioH),  that  David 
Ramsay  was  elected  President.  Congress  chose  him  Chairman,  in  the  absence  of 
President-elect  Hancock. — Journals  of  Congress.  TV.  606. 

t  Journals  of  Congress,  passim:  Selections  from  the  Correspondence  of  the  X.  J. 
Executive,  3C1. 

§  Bancroft's  History  of  the  Formation  of  the  Constitution,  I.  3c 6-7,  480-7;  Mul- 
ford's  History  of  Xew  Jersey,  480-1;  Journals  of  Congress, /)oss/»i.  Said  Hamil- 
ton: •■  Each  State,  yielding  to  the  persuasive  voice  of  immediate  interest  or  con- 
venience, has  successivel.v  withdrawn  its  support,  till  the  frail  and  tottering  edifice 
seems  ready  to  fall  upon  our  heads  and  crush  us  beneath  its  ruins.  " — The  Fcederal- 
iiit.'So.  XV.  r^awson's  ed..  Morrisania.  1804,99.     Washington  sadlj- confessed:  '•In 


AXD    THE    FIRST    STEAM-EXGINE    IX    AMERICA.  41 

letter  to  James  Madison,  May  28.  1786:  ''Till  lately  Congresf* 
has  been  very  inactive.  It  is  a  [)ractice  with  many  States  in 
the  Union  to  come  forward  and  be  very  assiduous  till  they 
have  carried  some  State  job,  and  then  decamp  with  precipita- 
tion, leaving  the  public  business  to  shift  for  itself."  *  Already 
there  was  a  ])rofound  jealousy  in  various  quarters  lest  the 
Union  should  become  more  powerful  thau  its  parts.  New 
York  insisted  upon  retaining  the  advantages  of  its  commer- 
cial supremacy,  and  reserved  for  its  own  use  the  revenue 
derived  from  imports,  which  was  very  oppressive  to  New  Jer- 
sey. Virginia  and  the  other  Southern  States  demanded  the 
opening  of  the  month  of  the  Mississippi,  even  at  the  price  of  a 
war  with  Spain.  The  very  meagre  record  of  the  debates  in  Con- 
gress during  those  times  gives  us  less  information  than  could 
be  desired  as  to  the  part  Mr.  Hornblower  took  in  the  delibera- 


a  word,  the  Confederation  appears  to  me  to  be  little  more  than  a  shadow  ivithout 
the  substance ;  and  Cont^ress  a  nu^a  tory  body,  their  ordinances  being  little  attended 
to."  Governor  Wm.  Livingston  declared:  -Without  the  utmost  exertions  of  the 
more  patriotic  part  of  the  commTuiity.  and  the  blessing  of  God  upon  their  exertions. 
I  fear  that  we  shall  not  be  able,  for  ten  years  from  the  date  of  this  letter  [February 
17,  1787]  to  support  that  independence  which  has  cost  us  so  much  blood  and  treasure 
to  acquire."— .S'erff/io/ci'*-  Livingston,  nt  .si«p/-a,  403.  John  Adams,  in  his  first  inau- 
gural speech  to  tlie  United  States  Congress.  March  4.  1797.  thus  summarized  the 
history  and  characteristics  of  the  Congress  of  the  Confederation:  ■■  Negligence  of 
its  regulations,  inattention  to  its  recommendations,  if  not  disobedience  to  its 
authority,  not  only  in  individuals  but  in  States,  soon  appeared,  with  their  melan- 
clioly  consequences;  universal  languor,  jealousies,  rivalries  of  States:  decline  of 
navigation  and  commerce:  discouragement  of  necessary  manufactures;  universal 
fall  in  tlic  vahie  of  lan<ls  and  their  produce;  contempt  of  public  and  private  faith: 
loss  of  consideration  and  credit  with  foreign  nations:  and.  at  length,  in  discontents. 
animosities,  combinations,  partial  conventions,  and  insurrection;  threatening  some 
great  national  calamity."'— IT'ocAs-  of  Jolt >i  .-Irfaiii.s-.  Boston,  18')0-.5(i.  IX.  10(5.  See 
also  -'Life  and  Times  of  Alexander  Hamilton,"  by  J.  C.  RiethmUUer,  London.  18C4. 
173;  ••  Life  and  Epoch  of  Alexamler  Hamillon,'"  by  George  Shea.  Boston.  1870.  7'2-l; 
••  Alexander  Hamilton."  by  Heni-y  Cahot  Lodge.  Boston,  18Si,  3f)-t:l  The  tories  and 
refugees  who  had  been  compelled  to  flee  to  Nova  Scotia  beheld,  with  unconcealed 
delight,  the  bickerings  between  the  States,  and  did  their  best  to  encourage  the  dis- 
content. Said  a  writer  from  St.  J(jlms:  -  If  we  \iew  the  respective  States  in  the 
Union,  we  shall  perceive  anai-chy  rather  tlian  government,  and  the  lowest  order  of 
citizens  in  their  Legislative  councils."  *  -  *  The  Southern  States.  ••  perfectly 
aware  of  the  insidious  conduct  of  New  KngUuul.  have  constantly  thwarted  her 
designs,  anil  clearly  perceive  that  their  material  interest  is  really  incompatilde  with 
the  aggrandizement  of  the  Northern  States,  whose  ambition  and  numbers,  in  time, 
bid  fair  to  be  very  dangerous  neighbors,  to  the  middle  as  well  as  more  Southern 
Provinces."— Po/i^/fo/  ilac/azine  i  London)  /or  Derenther.  1780.  40:i-4. 
*  Bancrofts  Hist.  Const..  I,  505. 


42  JOSIAH    HORXBLOWER. 

tions  of  that  body,  but  his  votes  on  various  questions  indicate 
that  he  favored  strengthening  the  Union  at  every  point,  as  the 
only  means  of  preserving  it.     Thus  we  find  him  (February  7, 
nSG)  voting  to  raise  tlie  largest  sum  ]u-oposed  to  pay  the  inter- 
est on  the  public  debt,  though  a  majority  of  the  States  was  not 
of  the  same  opinion  just  then.      A  commissioner  of  the  Conti- 
nental Loan  Office  in  New  York  having  failed  to  take  the  full 
oath   prescribed  by  Congress  for  its  appointees,   Mr.  Horn- 
blower   voted  (May  1)  that  the  office  be  considered  vacant. 
While  Congress  was  fixing  the  salaries  of  the  Commissioners 
of  Accounts  between  the  Nation  and  the  States  (May  IT),  he 
opposed  limiting  their  terms  to  one  year,  but  favored  e^xtending 
them — evidently  to  insure  greater  permanence  in  the  federal 
administration.     May   19.  we  find   him    taking   conservative 
2-round  in  behalf  of  the  libertv  of  the  private  citizen,  voting 
against  allowing  witnesses,  not  belonging  to  the  forces  of  the 
United  States,  to  be  punished  at  the  discretion  of  courts  mar- 
tial  for  refusing  to   testify  before  such  courts.     Congress, 
however,  decided  to  strike  out  the  words  "belonging  to  the 
forces  of  the  United  States."     Five  days  later  he  seconded 
a  motion    "that   the   aece[)tance    by    the  United    States    of 
any  cessions    heretofore   made,  or   which   shall    hereafter   be 
mide,  bv  anv  State,  of  tin-   c\-um<  of  such  State   to  western 
territory,  ought  not,  nor  shall  be  construed  nor  cited  as  con- 
firming, or  in  any  wise  strengthening  the  claim  of  such  State 
to  any  such  territory  not  ceded."     On   this  question  he  Avas 
in  opposition  to  the  extreme  State  Rights  men  of  Virginia, 
but  he  wa>;  always  found  taking  this  stand,  which,  indeed, 
was  only  consistent  with  the  views    he  had  advocated  in  the 
Xew  Jersey    Legislature.     The    Indian    i.robU'ni    then,  as  for 
nearly  a  century  since,  was  a  tnmblesonii-  one,  but  was  eom- 
plicated    at    that  time  l)y  tiu'   claim-  of    tlu-  States  most  con- 
(^•erncd — :is  those   of   the   South — to   (.-xercisu  independent  au- 
thoritv  over  the  aborigines  within  their  limits— a  claim  which 
Mr.  Hornblower  opposed  uniformly,  insisting  that  the  Nation 
should  exercise  exclusive  control  over  the  red   men  (June  29, 


AXD    THE    FIRST    STEAM-EXGISTE    IN    A^IERICA.  43 

July  20,  July  24.  August  7).  The  Northern  States  generally 
took  the  same  ground,  and  the  Southern  States  as  generally 
wished  to  have  the  rights  of  the  individual  States  recognized 
in  the  premises.  He  approved  the  report  of  the  Board  of 
Treasury  (August  8)  in  favor  of  establishing  the  decimal  sys- 
tem of  currency,  and  prohibiting  separate  State  coinage — an 
important  step  "toward  nationalizing  the  country.  Again,  he 
cast  his  voice  in  favor  of  requiring  the  officers  of  the  new 
Northwest  Territory  to  take  an  oath  of  fidelity  to  the  United 
States;  the  South  generally  voting  in  the  negative,  probably 
out  of  deference  to  the  old  claims  of  Virginia  to  the  territory, 
and  enough  Northern  members  voted  the  same  way  to  defeat 
the  proposition.  He  repeatedly  voted  to  urge  the  reluctant 
and  delinquent  States  to  comply  with  the  requisitions  of  Con- 
gress in  regard  to  the  imposts,  to  vest  the  sole  power  of  col- 
lecting them  in  Congress,  as  a  source  of  revenue  wherewith  to 
meet  the  national  obligations.  These  votes  *  indicate  clearly 
his  general  views  on  the  desirability,  not  to  say  the  absolute 
necessity,  of  so  increasing  the  powers  of  Congress  that  the 
Nation  might  be  able  to  assert  and  maintain  its  right  to  exist- 
ence. Thus  favoring,  as  he  did,  ''a  more  perfect  union'' 
between  the  States,  he  was  placed  in  an  extremely  embarrass- 
ing position  at  an  early  day  of  his  Congressional  experience, 
by  the  alarming  and  revolutionary  course  taken  by  his  own 
State,  in  Just  the  opposite  direction.  Abraham  Chirk  intro- 
duced (February  20.  178G)  in  the  New  Jersey  Assembly  a 
series  of  resolutions,  subsequently  adopted  by  that  body,  in- 
structing the  State's  delegates  in  Congress  to  ••  vote  against 
each  and  every  ordinance,  resolution  or  proceeding  whatever, 
Avliich  shall  jiroduce  any  expense  to  New  Jersey,  for  the  pro- 
motion or  security  of  the  commerce  of  these  States,  or  eithi-r 
of  them,  from  which  neither  tbe  Union  in  general,  nor  tliis 
State  in  particular,  derives  any  advantage,  until  all  the  States 
shall  effectually  and  substantially  adopt  and  carry  iiitu  execu- 
tion   the   impost"    adopted    by  Congress   April  18.  1783.     It 


*  Journals  of  Congress,  ut  supra,  IV,  passim. 


44  JOSIAH     HORXBLOWER. 

wa.«  also  resolved  not  to  ''  comply  with  the  requisition  of  Con- 
gress of  September  37,  1785,  or  any  other  of  similar  nature, 
requiring  specie  contributions,  until  all  the  States  in  the  Union 
shall  comply  with  the  requisition  of  April,  1783,  or  at  least 
until  the  several  States,  having  the  advantage  of  commerce 
which  they  now  enjoy,  solely  from  the  joint  exertions  of  the 
United  States,  shall  forbear  exacting  duties  upon  merchandise 
for  the  particular  benefit  of  their  respective  States,  thereby 
drawing  revenues  from  other  States,  whose  local  situation  and 
circumstances  will  not  admit  their  enjoying  similar  advant- 
ages from  commerce."*  This  was  a  formal  notice  to  New 
York  and  to  Congress  that  unless  that  State  allowed  her  im- 
port duties  to  go  into  the  National  Treasury,  as  the  other 
States  had  agreed.  New  Jersey  would  break  up  the  Union. 
Tlie  provocation  Avas  great,  i)ut  this  course  was  a  rash  one, 
and  threatened  comjilete  disaster  to  the  Confederation.  Mr. 
Clark  no  doubt  thought  it  would  be  a  i>opular  measure  in 
New  Jersey,  whose  people  had  grumbled  for  years  at  the 
unfair  advantage  inuring  to  New  York  by  her  absor[)tion  of 
the  duties  collected  at  her  great  port  of  entry.  In  this  he 
was  correct.  He  may  have  thought,  also,  that  some  such 
decisive  stroke  was  needed  to  force  a  speedy  settlement  of  the 
vexed  question,  and  in  fact  it  did  indirec-tly  have  that  result. 
Rut  for  a  lime  the  Union  was  on  the  verge  of  dissolution,  and 
its  friends  everywhere  deplored  the  action  taken  by  New  Jer- 
sev.  A  conservative  view  of  the  matter  is  presented  in  the 
following  letter  (hitherto  un])ublished)  to  Mr.  Hornblower, 
from  John  Beatty,  who  had  been  associated  with  him  in  the 
Legislature,  and  had  preceded  him  in  Congress:  f 

I'kixcktox  (itli  .Manih  1780. 
I)i;\R  Silt — Alllio  1  mil  iiol  an  aiitifaiik'nil    Man.  yot  In'lievc  me,  I  have 
hud  few  tU' leml  Ideas,  since  I  retired  to  (loiiie.stie  life— The  late  extraor- 
dinary act  of  our  Legislature,  recusing  a  Compliance  with  the  last  requisi- 


••'  Gordon  s  History  of  New  .Jersey.  3'.i7. 

I-  For  notices  (^f  Jolin  Beatty  see  History  of  1st  Pres.  Cliuich.  Treutoii,  40;;;  J'rince- 
ton  College  dm-ing  the  Eighteenth  Century,  by  Samuel  Davies  Alexander,  New  York 
II8721.  127:  History  of  Medicine  in  New  Jersey,  etc.,  140:  Minutes  of  Legislature, 
/jiixxiiii.     He  was  elected  to  Congress  in  178:!  and  in  1781. 


ANT)    THE    I-IHST    STF.A  M-F.  N(;  I  N  K    IN     AMKHK  A.  V) 

tioii  of  ronjrress.  lias  liowever  roused  nic  rrom  my  Lethargy  &  I  foci  sensi- 
bly mortified  &  alarmed  t'oi-  a  Conduct,  which  in  my  View  is  oxtreamly 
reprehensible,  &  tends  to  the  disolving  of  an  Union  already  too  feebly 
united — You  have  doubtless  seen  the  resolution  to  which  I  refer  as  is  con- 
tained in  the  last  Trenton  Gazette,  under  the  form  of  a  Motion  of  Mr.  A. 
C!lark — If  State  Policy  had  dictated  a  Measure  of  this  kind,  they  ought  not 
to  have  added  insult  to  the  refusal.  l)y  declaring,  they  would  not  comply 
with  any  future  requisition  of  that  Body,  unless  it  was  made  conformable 
to  their  Ideas;  thereby  denying  the  Constitutional  Authority  of  Congress  to 
fi-anie  such  an  Act^ — The  reasons  urged  in  the  pi-eamble  to  tiiis  hi</h  mid 
mightij  Ad  of  Sovereif/vfi/  in  Xew-.Iersey,  are  in  part  ti-ue  &  merit  con- 
sideration: but  surely  we  ought  first  to  complain,  before  we  attempt  to 
redress  otirselves,  at  the  Expence  of  the  Union  at  large — Were  our  Dele- 
gates instj-ucted  to  ask  of  (Congress  an  abatement  of  our  Quota  on  account 
of  our  unfavourable  local  Situation  in  point  of  Trade:  I  persuade  myself 
it  would  not  be  unattended  to:  moi'e  especially  as  no  Standard,  whereby 
to  measure  the  contributions  of  the  several  States,  has  as  yet,  been  perma- 
nently fixed ;  or  rather  been  made  the  rule  of  apportionment — In  what  light 
Congress  may  view  it.  I  know  not:  but  surely  our  allies  &  friends,  thro 
whose  pecuniary  aid.  we  have  i-ose  to  our  present  Independence:  will  view 
it  with  Surprise  and  Jealesy,  &  as  not  tending  to  the  Establishment  of 
that  National  System  of  Revenue,  which  the  resolution  pretends  to  have 
for  its  object ;  and  however  modest,  tho  firm,  their  Demands  of  Retribu- 
tion may  have  hitiierto  been :  they  will  no  longer  speak  the  Language  of 
Justice  &  Moderation,  but  I  fear  will  become  clamoi-ous  &  persisting — 

*  *  *  How  do  you  like  your  Situation  &  what  are  you  doing  in  Con- 
gress— Our  Indian  affairs  wear  but  a  gloomy  Aspect — This  will  prove  to 
be  the  Case,  untill  we  have  possession  of  the  western  parts — What  accounts 
are  there  from  Mr.  Adams  &  what  Expectations  have  we  of  their*  shortly 
evacuating  them — 

*  *     *    If  my  letter  is  not  too  troublesome,  I  shall  hope  for  an  answer. 

if  I  have  been  too  inquisitive :  you  will  please  to  correct  me— 

Yours  with  much  regard 

.Ino.  Bkattv 

The  Honble  Josiah  Hornblower  Esqr. 

Congress  took  prompt  measures  to  avert  the  impending 
disaster,  and  (March  7)  appointed  a  committee  to  [)roceed  to 
Trenton  and  represent  to  the  Legislature  •'  in  the  strongest 
terms,  the  fatal  consequences  that  must  inevitably  result  to 
the  said  State,  as  well  as  to  the  rest  of  the  Union,  from  their 
refusal  to  comply  with  the  requisition  of  Congress  of  Septem- 


*  The  British. 


■46  JOSIAH     HORNBLOWER. 

ber,  1785."  *  Mr.  Piiickney.  of  South  Carolina,  the  chairman 
of  the  committee,  addressed  the  Legiskture  at  length,  point- 
ing out  the  evils  of  this  first  attempt  at  nullification  (which 
his  own  State  was  destined  to  imitate  half  a  century  later), 
and  in  the  course  of  his  argument  ingeniously  intimated  that 
Xew  Jersey  could  more  easily  have  brought  New  York  to 
terms  by  opening  a  free  port  on  the  west  shore  of  the  Hud- 
son f — a  hint  Avhich  led  to  an  abortive  move  in  that  direc- 
tion. J  More  pertinently,  Mr.  Pinckuey  threw  out  the  sug- 
gestion of  a  "'general  convention  of  the  States  for  the  purpose 
of  increasing  the  powers  of  the  federal  government,  and  mak- 
ing it  more  adequate  for  the  ends  for  which  it  was  instituted.  "§ 
New  Jersey  did  reconsider  her  hasty  action,  though  neglect- 
ing to  honor  the  requisition  of  Congress,  and  voted  to  send 
commissioners  to  a  general  convention  of  the  States,  vesting 
them  with  power  to  consider  the  whole  subject  of  the  relations 
of  the  States.  II  Ours  was  the  first  State  to  take  this  broad 
step,  and  thereby  paved  the  way  for  the  convening  of  that 
immortal  body,  which  a  year  later  framed  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States  of  America. 

Another  subject  that  engrossed  the  attention  of  this  Con- 
gress was  the  navigation  of  the  Mississij^pi.  Spain  held  the 
mouth  of  that  mighty  river,  and  hindered  its  free  navigation 
from  the  north,  which  was  felt  to  be  an  injury  to  the  South- 
ern and  Western  States.  On  the  other  hand,  there  was  a 
feeling  in  the  Northern  States  that  if  the  Western  Territory 
secured  a  free  outlet  by  tlic  Mississippi,  that  section  of  the 
country  would  drift  away  from  the  influence  of  the  old  States; 
and  that  in  any  event  the  country,  enfeebled  by  a  long  and 
exhausting  struggle,  and  lacking  cohesive  power,  was  in  no 
condition  to  provoke  another  war,  with  Spain,  for  what  was 


*  Journals  of  Congress,  IV,  622. 
t  Bancroft's  HLst.  Const.,  I,  486. 

t  Gordon's  History  of  X.  J.,  328;  Minutes  of  Assemblj-,  passim. 
§  Bancroft's  Hist.  Const.,  I,  257. 
lb. 


a:vd  the  first  s'jkam-k.vgine  in   amkrica.  47 

after  all  but  u  doubtful  advantage,  to  a  territory  mainly  a  vast 
wilderness.*  On  this  ((iiestion  the  States  divided  on  iMason 
and  Dixon's  line,  the  South  voting  solidly  against  any  treaty 
with  Spain  thiir  did  not  concede  the  navigation  of  the  great 
river,  wliile  the  North  voted  as  solidly  in  favor  of  a  treaty 
without  such  condition.  Mr.  Horn  blower  voted  with  the 
North  uniformly  oil  this  question. f  One  of  his  colleagues. 
Mr.  Symmes,  was  almost  the  only  Northern  member  who 
favored  the  Southern  aiul  Western  view  of  this  subject,  i)os- 
sibly  because  he  ali-cady  contemplated  his  subsequent  vast 
purchases  of  lands  in  tlic  future  State  of  Ohio.t  James  Mon- 
roe  was  at  this  time  a  member  of  Congress  from  Virginia.  He 
was  very  young— but  twenty-eight — and  his  letters  of  the  time 
teem  with  the  spirit  of  an  extreme  and  narrow-minded  parti- 
san, who  deemed  those  who  did  not  think  alike  with  him  on 
public  allairs  to  be  deadly  enemies  of  the  country.  He  took 
this  matter  of  the  Spanish  treaty  greatly  to  heart,  and  de- 
clared his  belief  that  Mr.  John  Jay,  the  Foreign  Secretary, 
was  in  league  with  the  Northern  and  Eastern  members  to  dis- 
solve the  Union.  This  much  is  perhaps  necessary  to  explain 
the  animus  of  the  following  extract  of  a  letter  written  by  him 
(Sept.  12,  1T86),  to  James  Madison: 

"  It  will  depend  much  on  tlie  opinion  of  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania  as  to 
the  movements  ol  Mr.  Jay;  and  that  of  Jersey  much  on  that  of  Mr.  Clark, 
now  with  you  at  Annapolis,  lie  put  llornblower  in  Congress,  and  may 
turn  him  out  again,  lor  he  has  no  positive  weight  of  his  own.  Clark  has 
always  been  anxious  for  taking  the  Western  lands  from  us.  I  should  sup- 
pose him  inclined  to  turn  it  to  the  best  aecouiU.  I  conclude,  thei'efoi-e, 
that  if  he  knows  the  delegation,  especially  his  part  of  it,  pursue  a  system 
of  policy  so  coutrai-y  to  his  own  and  to  what  is  in  effect  the  interest  of  his 
country,  he  would  dismiss  Mr.  Hornblower.  Perhaps  you  may  be  able  to 
hint  to  Clark  that  Jersey,  except  Symmes,  was  with  the  Eastern  States 
upon  this  occasion. "g 

*  Bancroft's  Hist.  Const.,  H,  389-91. 

t  Secret  Journals  of  the  Acts  and  Proceedings  of  Congress,  1775-88,  Boston,  1821, 
IV,  45-57,  108-9,  ell. 

t  Life  and  Public  Services  of  John  Cleves  Symmes.  by  Charles  H.  W  iufiekl,  Proc. 
N.  J.  Hist.  Soc,  January,  1877. 

§  Bancroft's  Hist.  Const.,  II,  388-9,  3iW. 


48  .lOSIAH     HUKXBLOWEH. 

Mr.  Hornblower's  votes  in  Congress  clear] v  show  that  there, 
MS  in  the  Xew  .Jersey  Legishiture.  he  was  a  man  of  independ- 
ent convictions,  who  hesitated  not  to  differ  from  the  great 
body  of  members,  if  his  judgment  led  him  that  way,  though 
he  was  by  no  means  always  in  the  minority.  We  can  there- 
fore smile  at  the  petty  ebullition  of  Mr.  Monroe  in  character- 
izing this  large-minded  man.  of  such  varied  attainments  and 
such  wide  exjierience,  and  wlio  had  been  so  repeatedly  and 
signally  honoi'ed  in  liis  own  State,  as  having  "  no  ])ositive 
weight  of  his  own.*'  But  the  continuous  Avrangling  between 
the  States,  the  inditference  of  members  to  their  duties,  and 
the  contempt  mio  which  Congress  had  sunk  in  the  popular 
estimation,  by  reason  of  its  want  of  power,  must  all  have  been 
extremely  distasteful  to  a  man  of  Josiah  Hornblower's  ener- 
getic, straightforward  temperament,  especially  after  his  active 
and  influential  service  in  the  Legislature  of  his  State.  More- 
ovei',  the  entire  system  of  organization  was  well  calculated  to 
crush  out  the  individuality  of  members.  It  is  not  strange, 
then,  that  Mr.  Hornblower  retired  permanently  from  such  an 
unsatisfactory  body  at  the  end  of  his  first  term  of  one  year, 
and  cheerfully  left  others  to  enjoy  the  honor  which  had  come 
to  him  unsought.* 


*  The  Legislature,  on  November  7,  178(5.  reelected  Mr.  Cadwallader,  and  sent 
Abraham  Clark  and  James  Schuurman  in  place  of  Mr.  Hornblower  and  Mr.  Symmes. 
The  election  of  Mr.  Clark  at  this  time  might  appear  to  have  been  the  outcome  of 
the  suggestion  of  Monroe  to  ."Madison,  in  the  letter  given  above.  In  reality,  how- 
ever, it  was  no  doubt  because  of  his  attitude  in  the  preceding  Legislature  in  favor 
of  another  flood  of  legal  tender  paper  "  money."  with  which  the  State  was  already 
deluged.  The  best  men  of  the  State  were  against  it,  as  a  dishonest  measui'e.  but 
the  popular  demand  for  "'  cheap  money  "  would  not  be  stayed,  and  even  in  Eliza- 
bethtown,  his  home,  the  honest  and  patriotic  Governor  Livingston  was  burned  in 
efflgy  because  he  opposed  the  bill  in  the  Council.  Clark  on  this,  as  on  other  occa- 
sions, sided  with  the  masses,  and  sought  to  take  advantage  of  the  clamor  against 
the  Governor  to  step  himself  into  the  executive  chair;  but  he  could  muster  only 
eight  votes,  as  against  thirty-eight  for  the  gallant  and  honored  Livingston.  It  is 
quite  likely  that  his  election  to  Congress  a  week  later  was  brought  about  partly  liy 
the  friends  of  the  Governor,  with  a  view  to  console  him  for  his  defeat  in  the  guber- 
natorial canvass.  From  the  character  and  disposition  of  Mr.  Hornblower,  we  may 
be  sure  such  a  plan  would  meet  with  no  opposition  from  him.— Minutes  of  Joint 
Meeting,  1786;  BuncrofVs  Hist.  Const.,  L.  491,  497:  Gordon's  Hist.  N.  J..  329.  Gov. 
Livingston  said,  anent  the  proposed  emission  of  paper:  "  I  would  see  all  such 
popularity  as  must  be  acquired   at  the  horrid  expense  of  sacrificing  one's  con 


AND   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENGINE    IN    AMERICA.  40 

We  can  now  picture  him  retired  from  public  life,  enjoying 
in  his  charming,  hospitable  home  on  the  peaceful  banks  of  the 
Passaic,  the  well-earned  otium  cum  dignitate  so  l)efitting  a 
long  and  useful  career,  such  as  he  bad  led.  The  dangers  and 
struggles  of  the  war  were  at  an  end.  He  had  withdrawn  from 
the  turmoils  of  ])olitical  life,  and  in  the  care  of  his  large 
landed  property,  and  the  supervision  of  the  education  of  his 
numerous  family  he  found  ample  occupation.*  He  made 
companions  of  his  sons  and  daughters.  He  discoursed  Avith 
them  upon  the  affairs  of  life,  and  upon  mechanics  and 
scientific  themes  generally.  He  was  a  profound  believer  in 
the  infinite  capacities  of  steam,  and  predicted  that  his  chil- 
dren \V(»ul(l  live  to  see  it  in  general  use  as  a  motive  power  on 
land  as  well  as  on  water. f 

In  K'.i3.  the  New  Jersey  Copi)er  Mine  Association  was 
formed  liy  some  sanguine  caintalists— among  them  Jacob 
.Mark.  I'liilin  A.  Scluivler  and  Xicliolns  I.  Rooseveltt — at  whose 


science,  and  tlie  National  lionour.  and  the  public  faith,  and  our  federal  obligations, 
and  the  ultimate  and  real  inierest  of  this  State  to— the  devil." — Sed(jirick''s  Livliaj- 
liton.  :!!I8.  In  the  letter  from  .John  Beatty  tu  ."Mr.  Hornblower,  already  fciven  for  the 
most  part,  he  tli\is  e.xpresses  his  opinion  of  tlie  project:  "Tlu'  State  seems  at 
present  in  a  considerable  convulsion,  with  iv^ard  to  the  Emission  of  a  Paper  Cur- 
rency or  Loan— perhaps  no  subject  has  interested  all  ranks  of  the  people  so  nmch. 
since  the  revolution— The  House  of  Assembly  ai-e  no  less  divided— on  the  last 
division,  lit  votes  apiieared  for  &  IS  against  the  Bill— it  is  thought  the  Speaker  will 
give  it  existance:  tho  it  is  exti-eandy  <loubtfull  whether  it  will  pass  the  Coniicill— 
The  more  thinking  &  prudent  ])art  of  the  State  are  against  the  Measure" 

*  In  a  letter  to  a  niece  in  England,  Decend)er.  178S.  he  said:  '■Befoi-e  the  com- 
mencement of  the  late  war  I  was  in  Imsiness,  and  we  were  in  what  is  called  good 
worldly  circumstances:  but  since  that  period  have  cultivated  a  farm  which  I  fortmi- 
ately  imrchased  about  twenty  years  ago.  I  have  indeed  lately  been  in  some 
honorary  employments,  sucli  as  Speaker  of  the  (State)  House  of  Representatives, 
three  years  a  meml)er  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  State,  and  one  year  a  Mem- 
ber of  Congress  of  the  United  S*tates:  but  to  these  stations  very  small  emoluments 
are  amiexed."— //o/-yi/.i^;/rc;-  MSS..  rominuniiiitfd  liii  }fr.  .Titxtirc  Bnidlii/. 

i-  Proc.  N.  .J.  Hist.  Soc.  May.  18.5].  hri. 

tOu  February  4.  nU!.  Arent  J.  Schuyler,  sou  of  Col.  .Jolui  Schuyler,  then  <lfceased , 
leased  to  Philip  A.  Schuyler,  of  Bergen  County,  and  .Jacob  Mark,  of  New  York  City, 
merchant,  the  mine  property,  for  a  term  of  twenty -one  years,  with  the  privilege  of 
renewal  for  twenty -one  years  more,  at  a  i-ental  of  one-tenth  of  the  ore  for  the  first 
term,  and  one-seventh  of  the  ore  for  the  second  term:  the  lessees  to  '•  erect  and  re- 
build a  sufficient  steam  Engine  within  eighteen  months.'  and  to  -keep  at  least 
eight  men  at  woi-k  for  not  less  than  eight  months  in  the  year."  The  next  day  the 
lessees  entered  into  an  agreement  "  for  the  better  cari-ying  into  executi<jn  their 
intentions  of  extending  the  Copper  \\<n-k<  by  Erecting  Furnaces  sS;   Battering  & 


50  .TOSIAH    HORXBLOWEK. 

earnest  solicitation  Mr.  Hornl)lower  took  charge  of  the  works, 
at  a  salary  of  860  per  month,  and  the  iiromise  of  a  one-sixteenth 
interest  in  the  concern.  He  now  set  about  rebnilding  his  old 
"fire-engine,"  Avhich  had  lain  idle  for  twenty  years.  John 
Van  Emburgh  worked  on  the  engine  for  him  at  this  time. 
Seventy  years  later  he  recalled  the  circumstance,  remarking: 
"The  engine  was  repaired  and  the  works  ])ut  in  order  under  the 
supervision  of  Mr.  Josiah  Hornblower.  Avhowas  a  man  of  great 
skill.  He  did  not  talk  much,  but  when  he  s])oke  no  one  could 
say  he  did  not  understand  him,  he  was  so  clear  and  ])lain  in 
what  he  said.  He  knew  perfectly  everything  that  was  to  he 
done.  He  had  tlie  engine  under  such  perfect  control  that  In- 
a  single  hair  he  could  stop  it."*  The  management  of  (lie 
Association  proved  so  unsatisfactory  to  ^fr.  Hornblower  that 
in  July  or  August,  1794,  he  retired  from  the  sujierintendency, 
and  thus  his  connection  with  the  mines  and  the  steam-engine 
ceased  finally.  The  company  then  introduced  German  miners, 
because  they  could  get  them  for  low  wages,  but  the  Avork 
proving  unprofitable  was  soon  abandoned.  The  old  engine 
again  stood  idle  for  several  3'ears.  until  the  early  part  of  the 
ju'esent  century,  when  it  was  taken  to  pieces,  and  the  copi)er 
boiler  was  broken  up  and  carried  to  Philadelphia,  t     The  only 


Rolling  Mills  Do  declare  that  the  works  shall  be  carried  on  under  the  name  &  firm 
of  the  New  Jersey  Copper  Mine  Association. "■  The  property  was  to  be  represented 
by  640  shares,  divided  among  those  interested ;  three  directors  were  to  be  elected 
annually:  "  The  first  Election  for  chusing  directors  shall  be  on  the  first  Monday  in 
January  after  the  fii-st  steam  Engine  is  Erected  untill  which  time  the  wliole  manage- 
ment of  the  Company's  concerns  shall  remain  with  the  Lessees."  The  directors 
were  authorized  to  reserve  not  more  than  S8.000  annually  until  §20,000  sliould  be 
accumulated,  which  should  be  invested  as  capital,  to  be  used  as  necessity  might 
require  for  the  betterment  of  the  property.  Within  a  short  time  after  this  organiza- 
tion Nicholas  I.  Roosevelt,  a  New  York  merchant,  but  then  of  Bergen  couuty. 
became  interested  in  the  company. — Bergen  County  Deeds,  G,  folios  194,  187;  Essex 
Deeds,  D,  foho  1:>7.  Mark  subsequently  occujiied  a  farm  on  the  Passaic  river  bank, 
near  the  mine,  known  as  "Laurel  Hill,"  which  had  been  sold  by  Mr.  Hornblower. — 
Bergen  Deeds. 

*  Conversation  with  Mr.  Justice  Bradley,  in  18G5.  Judge  Bradley  writes:  "  I  had 
asked  Van  Emburgh  if  he  knew  about  the  old  engine  in  Schuyler's  mine,  nithout 
mentioning  Mr.  Hornblower's  name,  and  I  think  I  have  given  nearly  his  exact 
words  forming  a  part  of  his  reply.  As  the  words  of  a  plain  man  they  tell  a  great 
deal." 

+  For  these  particulars  of  the  working  of  the  mine  at  this  period  the  writer   s 


AXD   THE    FIRST   STEAM-EXGi:NrE    IX    AMERICA,  ;^] 

part  of  the  engine  known  to  exist  now  is   the  half-c\  liiidei-, 
ah-eadv  described. 

Mr.  Hornhiower  livi-d  to  see  realized  many  of  his  own 
prophecies  regarding  the  general  use  of  steam.  He  liveil  to 
see  the  new  and  improved  engines  built  bv  his  ]-elatives  and 
by  Boulton  &  Watt,  wlio,  located  in  the  heart  of  the  greatest 
coal  and  iron  district  in  the  world,  were  incessantly  stimulated 
by  fierce  competition  to  make  new  improvements  in  the 
design  and  construction  of  machinery.  He  lived  to  see  built, 
at  his  very  door,  the  first  steam-engine  manufactured  in 
America.  Messrs.  Roosevelt,  Mark  and  Schuyler.  Hired oi's 
of  the  New  Jersey  Copper  Mine  Association.  l)oughl  fnnn  Mr. 
Hornldowcr,  August  2'.).  1T!)4,  six  acres  of  land  on  (he  bro(d\ 
known  as  the  Second  River,  Avith  the  privilege  of  erecting  a 
dam  and  coal-house,*  This  was  the  beginning,  probahly,  of 
manufacturing  in  lielleville.  Here  they  estaldished  a  foundry 
and  nnichine-shoi),  and  here  smelting  works  wei'C  erected.  Not 
fai'  away  was  the  ship-yanl  of  Cornelius  Jerolaman.  who  Jiad 
the  reputation  of  turning  out  the  swiftest  sl()oj)s  that  inni- 
gated  the  Avaters  near  New  York.  Roosevelt  was  sanguine  and 
ambitious,  and  when  Chancellor  Robert  R.  Livingston,  of  Xew 
York,  conceived  an  idea  of  a  steamboat,  Roosevelt,  who  was  the 
chief,  and  perha})s  at  this  time,  the  sole  owner  of  the  Belle- 
ville works,  offered  to  bnild  a  steam-engine,  rather  than  liave 
the  order  go  to  England,  He  employed  one  Smallwood,  then 
in  charge  of  the  smelting  works,  to  construct  it,  Smallwood 
had  come  out    witii    the   first   engine    for   the    Philadelphia 


indebted  to  Mr.  Justice  Bradley,  who  has  Mr.  Hornblo\ver"s  account-books  in  his 
possession.  Mr.  Van  Eniburgh  told  Judge  Biadley  that  the  ndne  was  not  mucli 
more  than  100  feet  deep.  Isaac  Weld.  Jr.,  in  ir95-G-r.  says  of  the  mine:  '•  Repeated 
attempts  have  been  made  to  work  it:  but  whether  the  price  of  labor  be  too  gi-eat 
for  such  an  undertaking,  or  the  proprietors  have  not  proceeded  with  judgment. 
certain  it  is.  that  they  have  miscarried,  and  sustained  very  consitlerable  losses 
therehy r—Traveh.  l.")0.  Efforts  to  work  the  mine  have  been  made  frequently 
since.  The  projected  operations  in  1833  have  been  referred  to.  An  EngUsh  traveler 
who  visited  the  mine  in  IWW  says:  "The  mines  are  now  reopened,  a  steam-engine 
erected  to  drain  them,  and  the  works  are  proceeding  with  spirit.  It  is  the  only 
Coppermine  worked  in  the  United  States."— Tmre/s  through  the  United  States  of 
America  and  Canada,  by  I.  Finch.  London.  1S;33,  277. 
*  Essex  County  Deeds,  D,  127. 


52  JOSIAH     HORXBLOWER. 

Water-works,  sent  by  Boulton  &  Watt  from  Soho.  England, 
and  having  erected  it,  settled  at  Belleville,  instead  of  return- 
ing to  England — as  Mr.  Hornblower  had  done  before  him. 
In  the  primitive  state  of  American  industries  at  that  time,  it 
was  difficult  to  find  skilled  mechanics  anywhere  in  the  country, 
but  fortunately  at  this  juncture  there  arrived  another  voung 
Englishman,  in  the  person  of  John  Hewitt,  a  pattern-maker 
by  trade,  whose  skill  was  utilized  in  that  direction.  A  German 
named  Rohde  was  found  to  make  the  castings,  and  the  three 
men  set  to  work.  Xatnrally,  Mr.  Hornblower  took  a  gieat 
interest  in  the  undertaking,  and  the  men  named  boarded  at 
his  house  while  the  work  was  going  on.  On  October  21,  1 798, 
tlie  Polacca — a  little  craft,  60  feet  long,  witli  a  20-inch  cylin- 
der and  3-foot  stroke — started  ont  on  her  trial  tri]i.  the  suc- 
cess of  which  is  disputed.  This  might  have  been  expected 
from  Mr.  Livingston's  plan,  which  was  to  force  a  stream  of 
water  out  of  the  stern  by  means  of  a  powerful  centrifugal 
pump.  It  is  said  that  tiic  same  parties  subsequently  built  an 
engine  for  John  Stevens'  steamboat  in  1804,  which  was  the 
first  screw-propeller  ever  seen.*  Roosevelt  was  undouhtedlv 
a  man  of  considerable  ingenuity,  and  soon  made  for  the  little 
Belleville  shops  quite  a  reputation,  though  they  never  ((uitc 
equaled  in  magnitude  the  great  establishment  after  whicli  he 
named  them — Soho. 


*  Thurston's  Hist.  Steam-engine,  250,  2(54 ;  History  of  the  City  of  New  York,  by 
Mrs.  Martha  J.  Lamb,  1880.  II.  42H-9;  Proc.  N.  J.  Hist.  Soc,  May,  ia51,  163.  and  May. 
1863,  lir-ai:  Report  of  U.  S.  Centennial  Exhibition,  1876.  VI,  11.  For  the  particulars 
concerning  the  employment  of  Hewitt  and  Smallwood.  and  their  intercourse  witli 
Mr.  Hornblower.  the  writer  is  indebted  to  the  Hon.  Abram  S.  Hewitt,  tlie  son  of 
.John  Hewitt.  He  adds:  '■  Rohde  came  to  New  Yorli,  and  established  what  were 
subsequently  the  Allaire  Works  in  this  city.  Allaire,  wliom  I  knew  vei-y  well,  was 
one  of  the  first  apprentices  in  the  establishment.  My  fatlier  subsequently  engaged 
in  other  business,  and  died  at  Ti-enton,  in  18.56,  where  steani-engines  surrounded 
him  on  all  sides.  His  life  covered  the  era  of  its  development  and  universal  intro- 
duction. It  is  a  singular  coincidence  that  Mrs.  Hewitt  is  the  daugliter  of  Peter 
Cooper,  who  built  the  first  locomotive  engine,  while  I  am  the  son  of  the  man 
who  made  the  patterns  of  the  first  steam-engine  that  was  built  in  America.  Our 
children  ought  certainly  to  have  plenty  of  '  go  '  in  them!""  The  first  successful 
locomotive  in  America  was  built  by  Peter  Cooper  for  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Rail- 
road, and  run  by  himself,  in  August,  1829.  It  might  be  noted  that  Fulton's  first 
successful  steamboat  was  not  run  until  August,  1807.  nine  years  after  the  experi- 
ments at  Belleville. 


AXD    THE    FiKST    STEAM-ENGINK    IN    AMERICA.  Oo 

Mr.  Honiblower  was  agaiu  in  public  life,  having  been  ap- 
pointed in  1790*  Judge  of  the  Essex  Common  Pleas,  to  whicli 
he  was  reappointed  in  1705,1  holding  the  position  until  com- 
pelled by  ill  health  to  retire,  and  "sitting  on  the  bench,*" 
we  are  told,  '•  with  dignity,  uju-ightness  and  solidity  of  judg- 
ment. "J  As  the  loading  man  in  the  neighborhood,  he  was 
frequently  called  upon  to  preside  at  pnblic  meetings  when 
affairs  of  moment  were  to  be  considered. ^ 

As  tlie  years  after  the  war  ])assed  away,  with  them  passed, 
also,  most  of  the  asperities  of  those  days  of  bitterness.  His 
family  and  liis  dignities  increasing,  a  new  and  larger  house 
seemed  needed,  and  he  built  a  s]iacious,  elegant  residence  of 
stone,  a  short  distance  below  his  former  dwelling.  But  when 
it  was  linished.  neither  he  nor  his  wife  could  beai-  to  leave 
the  old  home.  II  There  they  had  lived  most  of  their  wedded 
life;  there  most  of  their  children  had  been  born,  and  there 
they  preferred  to  die.     And  there  they  did  die. 

The  same  reasons  that  led  to  the  erection  of  the  new  mansion, 
perhaps  induced  Mr.  llornblower  to  set  up  a  family  coach, 
after  the  a])]>roved  fashion  of  the  day.  It  was  a  gorgeous  and 
ponderous  affair,  drawn  liy  four  horses,  and  caused  the  ovvner 
to  be  greatly  reviled  as  an  aristocrat.  He  was  anything  but 
that,  being  indeed  a  man  of  the  people  himself,  simple  and 
unostentatious  in  his  tastes,  and  would  never  ride  in  his  own 
magniticejit  coach,  preferring  instead  to  go  afoot  or  on  hoi-se- 
back.** 

In  person,  he  was   tall   and  of  commanding  presence,  and 

*  Minutes  of  Joint  Meeting,  and  oriKinal  commission,  in  possession  of  Mr.  Justice 
Bradley. 

tib. 

t  Alden's  Epitaphs,  V.  235. 

§  See  Appendix  I,  Note  C. 

II  Letter  to  the  writer  from  the  Rev.  Dr.  Wm.  H.  Hornblower,  March  21,  1877. 
The  new  house  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Hornblower's  sou,  James,  and  afterward  by 
the  latter's  son-in-law,  William  Stephens,  and  family.  It  was  torn  down  about  18,5(!. 
Subsequently  the  plot  was  sold  by  Mr.  Stephens  to, William  M.  Ackerman,  of  Belle- 
ville, who  built  the  present  dwelling,  and  later  sold  it  to  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Liscomb,  of 
New  York  city,  its  present  owner.  So  the  writer  is  informed  by  Mr,  William  H. 
Stephens,  of  Belleville. 

♦*  Letter  from  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hornblower. 


o4  JOSIAH    SORNHLOWEH. 

courtly  in  his  bearing.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Samuel  Miller,  of 
Princeton  Theological  Seminary,  and  Mrs.  Finley,  wife  of  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Robert  Finley,  of  Baskingridge,  and  daughter  of  the 
Rev.  James  Caldwell,  of  Revolutionary  fame,  used  to  say  that 
he  was  a  man  of  more  elegant  manners,  a  more  finished  gen- 
tleman, than  any  one  they  had  evei"  met.*  And  they  were 
persons  of  culture,  accustomed  to  the  best  society  in  the  hiiul. 

He  came  of  a  Baptist  family,  and  marrying  an  Episcopa- 
lian, they  "  C()m])romised  "  by  attending  the  ancient  Reformed 
Dutch  Church  at  Belleville.f  In  his  latter  years  he  appears 
to  have  been  a  member  of  the  Episcopalian  (;ongregatioii,  his 
death  and  that  of  one  of  his  sons  (John)  l)eing  recorded  in 
the  books  of  Trinity  (Episcopal)  Church,  Newark. 

Mrs.  Hornldower  is  described  as  a  very  beautiful  woman, 
o  of  the  most  elegant  ladies  of  the  day.  Adorning  her  per- 
son with  silks  and  satins  and  velvets  and  diamonds,  as  became 
her  position  in  society,  she  l)elieved  in  adorning  the  Lord's 
house,  too,  and  a  crimson  damask  robe  she  gave  for  the  pulpit 
of  the  modest  little  Dutch  Church  was  Ion  i'  i-emembered  with 
gratitude  by  the  congregation,  while  it  was  an  occasion  of 
otfence  to  her  High-Church  of  England  sisters.];  During  the 
stormv  times  of  the   Revolution,  she   sided   lo\allv   witli   her 


*  Letter  fi-om  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hornblower. 

+  lb.  In  the  letter  to  his  niece,  December.  1788,  before  quoted  from,  he  says:  "I 
rejoice  with  you  that  true  vital  I'eligion,  which  was  in  some  measure  planted,  or  at 
least  cherished,  by  the  example  and  labors  of  your  dear  father  (Jonathan  Horn- 
blower.  Sen.  I.  increases  amongst  you.  In  this  country  the  religion  of  Jesus  spreads 
more  and  more  daily;  here  are  no  distinctions  of  pre-eminence  given  to  any  Chris- 
tian Church:  and  most  of  the  jirofessors,  though  of  different  denominations,  live 
together  in  great  harmony  and  brotherly  love.  It  is  not  uncommon  for  the  young 
people  here,  although  member.s  of  different  churches,  to  meet  together  on  the 
evening  of  the  Sabbath  for  social  worship."  Dr.  Hornblower,  in  the  letter  referred 
to  above,  says  liis  grandfather  communed  in  the  Baptist  Chureli  in  New  Yoi-k,  but 
iiu  I'ecord  of  the  fact  has  been  found.  Chief-Justice  Hornblovv'er,  when  he  settled 
in  Newark,  connected  himself  with  Trinity  Church,  and  had  his  first  two  cldldren 
baptized  in  that  church.  May  10,  180C.  as  appears  by  the  records  in  the  custody  of 
Daniel  Dodd,  Esq.  About  1808  he  united  with  the  Presbyterian  Church.  The  Rev. 
Joseph  Willard.  Rector  of  Trinity  Church,  Newark,  and  the  Rev.  Peter  Stryker, 
Pastor  of  tlie  Reformed  Church,  at  Belleville,  joined  in  j^reparing  a  biographical 
sketch  of  Mr.  Hornblower.  which  was  published  in  the  newspapers  directl.N'  after 
his  death;  in  tW  Ainericun  ii'f'r//.s^ /•.  Philadelidda,  180i),  V,  2&J,  and  in  Alden's 
Epitaphs. 

ilb. 


AND   THE    FIRST   STEAM-ENHINE    IX    AMERICA.  5.") 

English  Imsbaiid  in  defence  of  American  Independence, 
altlioiigii  so  many  of  lier  American  kinsmen  were  ranged  on 
the  side  of  the  British.  On  July  4,  1780,  she  was  designated 
with  Mrs.  (Governor)  Livingston,  Mrs.  Elisha  Boudinot  and 
Mrs.  (Dr.)  William  Burnet,  as  a  Committee  of  Essex  County 
ladies,  with  others  equally  prominent  throughout  the  State, 
to  receive  subscriptions  for  tlie  succor  of  the  country's 
defenders  in  tlie  field.*  After  the  war  she  dispensed  a  lavish 
and  elegant  hospitality,  her  house  being  fitted  up  with  all  the 
appliances  that  wealth  and  taste  ('<mld  supply  for  entertain- 
ing in  a  manner  befitting  her  means  and  station. 

Mrs.  Hornblower  died  April  24,  1808, f  and  nine  months 
later  the  sponse  of  her  youth  was  laid  beside  her.  A  local 
newspapei'  of  the  day  (the  Newark  Centinel  of  Freedom,  Tues- 
day, Janmiry  24,  1809)  says  his  death  occurred  ''after  a  long 
and  })ainful  illness,"  and  concludes  a  brief  obituary  with  the 
remark  that  ''  through  life,  he  was  a  useful,  benevolent  citi- 
zen." Another  writer  states  that  •'  in  his  last  illness,  the 
exercise  of  every  Christian  grace  shone  with  peculiar  lustre. "J 

In  the  (piict  ''God's  acre"  about  the  old  Reformed  Church 
at  Belleville,  lie  the  mortal  remains  of  this  loving  pair  who 
through  more  than  half  a  century  of  wedded  life,  and  through 
dangers  manifold,  clung  to  each  other  so  devotedly.  Within 
sight  of  the  spot  wliere  rests  this  pioneer  of  steam-enginery 
in  America,  tiie  forces  of  steam  are  at  work  in  a  huiulred 
forms,  converting  the  simple  hamlet  of  yore  into  a  busy  cen- 
tre of  industry.  Almost  within  a  stone's  throw  of  his  resting 
])lace.  long  trains  of  cars  dash  by  with  the  speed  of  the  wind, 
propelled  by  the  same  mighty  power,  bringing  over  tlic  narrow 
track  the  weidth  of  the  remotest  parts  of  the  gh)be.  Hut. 
curionsly  enough,  the  most  important  use  of  the  subtle  powei- 
in  that  neighborliood.  is  the  same   for  wiiicli  his  rude  "  fire- 


*  New  Jersey  Journal,  July  3,  IVSO. 

tThe  notice  of  her  death,  in  the  Newark  Centinel,  of  April  ^G.  1808,  reads:  '-Died 
at  Belleville  on  Sunday  morning  last,  a  few  minutes  before  ten  o'eloclv.  Mrs.  Eliza- 
beth Hornblower,  wife  of  Josiah  Hornblower.  Esq..  in  the  75th  year  of  her  age." 

X  Alden's  Epitaphs,  V,  235. 


^)i)  JOSlAH     HOKNBJ.OWKFt. 

eiigiiic  "  w;is  hroiight  over,  one  Inmdred  a;ul  tliirty  years  ago 
— namely,  to  pump  water;  only,  instead  of  lifting  "HO  hogs- 
heads per  minute, ''  to  ponr  it  into  the  river,  these  modern, 
mighty  engines,  embodying  all  the  latest  im])rovements  in 
scienee.  are  ceaselessly,  noiselessly  hoisting  tAvice  that  quantity 
out  of  the  river,  to  pour  it  in  refreshing,  life-giving  streams 
through  the  two  chief  cities  of  Xew  Jersey — cities  of  whose 
future  greatness  even  the  far-seeing  young  engineer  could 
scarcely  have  dreanuMi — cities  which  would  not,  (;ould  not 
have  existed  to-day.  were  it  not  foi'  tlie  wonderful  ])ower 
which  he  tirst  harnessed  to  the  car  of  progress  and  civiliza- 
t  ion  in  America. 


APPENDIX    I. 


XOTK   A,    Pa(;i-:   (!. —  Hdnihhiircr's   Codi punvd    Eii(jiiii\     and 
Ms  Coyitrorcrstj  with  lliniUtni  iuid   Wall. 

The  aim  of  the  (lou'i)le-cylinder  or  coinpountl  engine  oi  Jonathan  lloi'n- 
blower,  Jr..  tlie  nephew  of  Josiah  Honiblower.  was  to  utilize  Uie  expansive 
power  of  steam.  wlierel)y  the  same  .^teani  could  be  used  twice  or  more. 
The  engine  had  two  cylinders,  one  double  the  size  of  the  othei-.  The  steam 
was  let  into  both,  beneath  the  pistons,  and  was  then  cut  off:  from  the 
smaller  cylinder  it  had  free  vent  by  a  pipe  into  the  largei'.  above  the  pis- 
ton-head: as  it  escaped  from  the  smaller  cylinder  it  left  a  vacuum  behind, 
causing  the  piston  to  (i(\scend.  and  the  expanded  steam  in  the  sei'ond  cylin- 
der pressed  down  upon  the  lai'ger  j)iston-head,  giving  an  additional  impetus 
to  its  descent,  while  the  steam  beneath  it  was  discharged  through  a  pipe 
running  under  the  first  cylinder  (thus  heljiing  to  keej)  it  warm),  into  an 
outside  vessel,  where  it  was  condensed.  It  was  claimed  that  the  powei'  of 
t his  engine  was  to  Watt's  single-cylinder  engine  as  o  is  to  2:  in  other 
words,  that  a  gain  of  50  ijer  cent,  was  ett'ected.*  Walt  was  greatly 
troubled  by  the  first  rumors  thai  came  to  him  concerning  this  invention, 
fearing  that  some  entirely  new  power  had  heen  discovered,  instead  of  a 
new  application  of  a  power  ahvady  known.  He  then  claimed  that  he  had 
conceived  the  idea  of  using  the  expansive  power  of  steam  as  early  as  17G7,  | 
but  he  had  not  been  able  to  ir.ake  a  successful  application  of  it.  and 
there  is  really  no  reason  to  doubt  that  Mr.  Hornblower's  was  an  independ- 
ent discovery,  and  that  he  was  the  first  to  put  the  idea  into  practical  form. 
When  it  is  remembered  that  he  was  not  only  the  son  of  an  engineer,  but 
t  hat  his  grandfather  had  erected  a  steam-engine  at  least  ten  yeai's  before 
James  Watt  saw  the  light  at  Greenock,  it  is  only  reasonable  to  suppose 
that  he  was  quite  as  capable  of  arriving  at  original  results  in  his  special 
field,  as  was  the  humble  watch  and  instrument  maker.  It  is  claimed:];  for 
Jonathan  that  he  -'took  up  the  subject  of  his  engine  early  in  1770,  if  not 
before,  and  continued  it  until  he  made  a  large  working  model  whose  cylin- 


*  Historical  Review  of  Improvements  in  the  Steani-Eiigine  in  the  XVIIIth  Century, 
by  Jabez  Carter  Hornblower,  printed  in  the  first  and  second  editions  of  O.  Gregory's 
Mechanics,  Vol.  II,  358-3y0.  and  reprinted  for  Mr.  .Justice  Bradley.  AVashington.  18S0, 
3a-5;  Lives  of  Boulton  and  Watt.  304 :  Tlnu-stons  History  of  the  Steam  Engine,  135-7. 

+  Lives  of  Boulton  and  Watt.  304. 

X  By  Jabez  Carter  Hornblower,  ut  supra,  p.  3ti  of  reprint. 


58  JOSIAH    HORXBLOAVEE, 

ders  were  11  and  14  inches  in  diameter,"  and  then  sent  a  description  with 
drawings  to  the  editor  of  the  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  who  promised  that 
the  account  should  appear  with  the  ''marks  of  peculiar  approbation '' of 
Dr.  Robison.  wlio  was  preparing  the  article  on  the  steam-engine  for  the 
next  edition  of  the  work.     But  Dr.  Robison  was  a  warm  Iriend  of  Watt, 
and  indeed  was  the  first  to  direct  the  attention  of  the  young  inventor  to 
the  subject  of  steam— in  1759,*  forty  yeai's  after  Joseph  Horn  blower  had 
set  up  his  first  engine.     The  Doctor  not  unnaturally  saw  everything  relat- 
ing to  engines  as  a  partisan  of  Watt,  and  in  his  notice  of  Ilornblower's 
compound  engine  directed  attention  chiefly  to  various  minor  impi'ovements 
made  by  Mr,   Homblower,  quite  overlooking  the  real  importance  of  his 
application  of  the  expansive  power  of  steam,  and  declared  that  the  engine 
was  inferior  to  that  of  his  friend.  Watt,     This  provoked  Mr.  Hornblower 
to  d  severe  rejoinder,  which  lost  him  any  chance  thereafter  of  getting  jus- 
tice at  the  hands  of  Dr.  Robison  or  the  Encyclopedia  for  which  he  wrote. f 
Here  is  a  new  illustration  of  the  power  of  the  press  to  make  or  mar  an  in- 
ventor's fortunes!      Although   Watt   had  taken   out  the  patent  for  his 
improved  engine  in  1769  and  another  in  1774,  he  was  still  (in  1781)  in  the 
experimental  stages  of  his  invention,  largely  owing  to  the  mechanical  diffi- 
culties 10  be  overcome,   and  the  lack  of  skilled  workmen, |  which  also 
proved  a  stumbling-block  in  the  way  of  the  speedy  success  of  Hornblower's 
engine.     From  the  date  of  Newcomen's  first  practical  application  of  the 
power  of  steam,  the  English  engineers  had  been  trying  to  remedy  the 
obvious  defects  of  that  machine,  so  that  it  was  not  strange  that  several 
persons  should  come  close  upon  the  same  idea  at  the  same  time.     Thus,  . 
Watt's  claim  to  the  invention  of  the  separate  condenser  has  been  disputeil 
in  behalf  of  two  or  three  persons,  the  fact  doubtless  being  that  many 
besides  himself  had  had  their  thoughts  inclined  in  the  same  direction.    But 
he  was  tlie  first  to  solve  the  problem,  and  undoubtedly  is  entitled  to  the 
credit  of  the  invention.     As  he  himself  said  in  one  of  his  despondent 
moods,  and  they  were  many  while  he  feared  the  success  of  the  Hornblower 
engine:     "  It  looks  as  if  Nature  had  taken  an  aversion  to  monopolies,  and 
put  the  same  thing  into  several  people's  heads  at  once,  to  prevent  them,"g 
When  the  real  character  of  the  new  invention  became  known.  Watt  evi- 
dently did  not  grasp  its  true  significance  at  once,  and  hardly  knew  upon 
wliat  grounds  to  attack  it.     He  was  greatly  worried  and  mortified  to  find, 
too,  that  the  mine-owners  favored  the  Ilornblowers,  not  so  much  because 
of  friendship,  as  in  the  hope  of  breaking  up  the  monopoly  of  the  powerful 
Soho  fii-m.     ''  The  Horners  continue  bi'agging  of  what  they  are  to  do,"  he 
writes  peevishly,   '"and  I  hear  the  country  in  general  takes  part  with 


*  Lives  of  Boulton  and  Watt,  118. 

+  Encyclopedia   Britannica.   3d   ed..   Art.  Steam-Engiues.  No.  70:  Jabez  Carter 
Hornblower.  ut  supra,  reprint.  36-7. 
+  Lives  of  Boultou  and  Watt.  3U-13. 
§  lb.,  300. 


,\XI)    THE    I-'IRST    STKAM-EN(UNE    IN    A.MKltlCA.  59 

them."*  And  a,?aiii :  '"AH  the  bells  in  Cornwall  would  be  rung  at  our 
overt hx'ow.''f  Boulton  and  Watt  first  claimed  that  the  Hornblower  patent 
infringed  on  that  of  Watt  in  respect  to  the  use  of  steam  to  press  down  the 
pi3ton.  of  the  second  cylinder.  '"As  to  the  scheme  of  the  Hornblowers, 
they  shall  sooner  press  me  down  into  the  eai'th  than  they  shall  press  down 
a  piston  with  steam,"  wrote  Boulton  defiantly  to  his  partner.^  In  the 
fourth  specification  of  his  patent  of  1769  Watt  set  out  this  claim:  "l 
intend  in  many  cases  to  employ  the  expansive  force  of  steam  to  press  on 
the  pistons,  or  whatever  may  l)e  used  instead  of  them,  in  the  same  manner 
as  the  i)ressure  of  the  atmosphere  is  now  employed  in  the  common  fire- 
engine."^  It  was  fifteen  years  later,  or  three  years  after  the  Hornblower 
patent  was  taken  out,  ere  Watt  perfected  his  double-acting  engine,  in 
which  the  steam  acted  on  the  upper  as  well  as  the  lower  side  of  the  piston- 
head,  in  a  single  cylinder.  I5ut  the  specification  ciuoted  hardly  indicates 
any  siicli  engine  as  Mr.  Hornblower  designed.  In  "An  Address  to  the 
Lords,  Adventurers,  and  Others,  concern'd  in  the  Mines  of  Cornwall." 
issued  from  Penryn  (Cornwall),  May  1.  1788,  by  Jonathan  Hornblower, 
Jr.,  and  John  Winwcod  (a  wealthy  capitalist  who  was  backing  up  the 
former),  they  say ; 

'•The  fourth  Articl'  of  Mr.  Watt's  Specification  relating  to  Steam  on 
the  Piston,  seems  to  be  the  principal  Matter  of  Dispute;  for  which  Reason 
it  is  what  we  wish  most  to  consider:  And  without  dwelling  on  the  vague 
and  uncertain  Manner  in  which  it  is  worded,  we  pass  on  to  observe,  that 
so  far  from  this  Invention  being  new,  it  was  made  public  at  least  fifty 
Years  since,  and  in  order  to  prove  this,  a  Description  of  it,  illustrated 
with  a  Copper-Plate,  may  be  seen  at  This  day,  where  the  expansive  Power 
of  Steam  is  employed  to  impel  the  Piston,  on  a  Vacuum  which  is  made  in 
the  ui)per  Part  of  tlic  (Cylinder:  and  where  tlie  Piston  is  connected  to  an 
Iron  Kod  that  moves  thro'  the  (  ylinder-Lid.  Which  plainly  demonstrates, 
that  the  Power  of  Steam  employed  to  force  into  a  Vacuum,  intercepted  by 
a  Piston,  is  of  ancient  Date.  *  *  *  That  we  did  not  even  take  the 
Hint  of  our  Im])rovement  from  Messrs.  Boulton  and  Watt,  we  have  l':vi- 
dence  .sufficient,  who  saw  our  Model  at  Work  in  177G,  which  was  long 
before  we  heard  of  tliose  Gentlemen  or  their  Patent." 

The  Solio  firm  idtimately  made  theii-  fight  mainly  oi-  altogether  on  the 
principle  of  the  separate  condenser,  claiming  that  lIond)lower"s  device  for 
discharging  the  steam  from  the  larger  cylinder  was  an  iutVingement  on 
Watt's  great  patent.  Mr.  Hornblower  admitted  the  value  of  this  idea, 
but  denied  having  adopted  it.  saying,  in  the  --Address"  quoted  from  above: 
"Tiie  Ai)plication  of  this  Improvement  to  our  Engine  wouhl  be  useless; 
nor  have  we  adopted  it,  for  we  do  admit   tlie  condensing  Water  into  the 


*  Lives  of  Boulton  iiiul  Watt,  -iiia,  308. 

tib.,  303,  S-ZO. 

t  lb.,  .301. 

§  Thurston's  Hist.  Steam-Engiue.  100. 


60  JO.SJAJl     HOUXUl.OWEH, 

Cylinder.  Which  is  .sufficient  of  itsell  to  evince,  that  the  Principles  of  the 
two  Machines  must  be.  and  ai-e  very  different."  However,  from  the 
descriptions  and  views  of  the  engine  extant,  there  evidently  was  attached 
some  sort  of  a  condensing:  apparatus  outside  of  the  cylinders,*  and 
although  it  was  i)y  no  means  an  essential  feature  of  the  engine,  it  gave 
Boulton  and  Watt  an  advantage  in  attacking  Hornblower's  design.  The 
counsel  for  Hornblower  and  liis  associates  boldly  questioned  the  legality 
and  the  sufficiency  of  Watt's  patent,  but  in  this  they  failed.  On  the  other 
liand,  it  does  not  appear  that  Mr.  Hoi-iiblowers  claim  to  the  invention 
of  the  double-cylinder  engine  was  successfully  disinited'in  the  courts.  But 
Boulton  and  Watt  commanded  a  larger  capital,  supplied  means  for  oper- 
ating many  mines  and  other  manufacturing  enterprises,  enjoyed  the  vast 
prestige  of  court  favor. -f  and  in  various  ways  managed  to  intrencli  them- 
selves so  firmly  tliat  when  Mr.  Hornblower's  patent  expired,  in  1795.  it 
was  out  of  the  question  for  liim  to  seek  a  renewal  of  it:  and  when  Watt's 
second  patent  (extended  Ijy  Parliament  in  1775  for  twenty-five  years  fi-om 
its  date  of  issue.  1774. against  the  strenuous  opposition  of  the  mine-owners, 
whose  cause  was  warmly  espoused  by  Eflmund  Burke  X}  ran  out,  in  179!). 
the  Hornblowers  wei-e  no  longer  in  a  jwsition  to  compete  in  the  manu- 
facture of  engines  with  their  great  and  wealthy  nvals.  As  already  stated, 
the  principle  of  the  Hornblower  engine  is  to-day  most  effectively  applied, 
to  enable  stetimships  to  make  swift  and  extended  ocean  voyages,  which 
I  hey  could  not  accomphsh  without  it. 

Mr.  Justice  Bradley,  who  has  given  the  subject  nmch  attention  for 
many  years,  says  in  a  letter  to  tlie  writer:  "1  liave  long  l)een  of  the  opin- 
ion that  injustice  was  done  to  the  Hornblowers  on  the  merits  of  the  con- 
troversy, r  am  so  satisfied  on  the  subject  in  reading  the  Hornblowers' 
letters,  and  in  many  other  ways,  that  T  have  a  moral  cei'tainty  of  it,"  He 
gives  these  references  to  the  rci)oi-ts  of  the  litigation:  Boulton  &  Watt  vs. 
Bull,  2  H.  Blackstone.  463:  Hornblower  &  Maberly  vs.  Boulton  &  Watt. 
8  Term  Reports,  95:  Boulton  vs.  Bull,  ;j  Ves„  140:  remaj-ks  by  counsel, 
nrgiicndn.  in  the  argument  on  NpIIsoii's  Patent,  in  Webster's  Patent  Case,s. 


XoTE  B.  Page  l-^.—  Thc  Sno/r  Irene,  ami  Captain  (kirrif^on. 

Nicholas  Garrison  was  born  on  Staten  Island  in  1701,  went  to  se^i  in  his 
thirteenth  year,  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  took  command  of  a  New 
York  vessel  in  the  West  India  trade.  While  thus  engaged  he  met  Bishoj) 
Spangenbergh.  in  October,  1736.  who  sailed  in  his  vessel  for  New  York, 
When  nearing  port,   "a  severe  storm  arose,  and  fear  seized  all  the  crew 


*  Illustrations  of  the  engine  are  gi  ren  in  the  article  by  Jabez  Carter  Hornblower. 
ut  supra,  reprint:  and  in  Thurston's  Hist.  Steam -Engine.  136. 
+  Lives  of  Boulton  and  Watt.  3. 
:ib..  -,'10. 


AXD   THE    FIRST    STEAM-EXGIXE    IX    AMERICA.  Hi 

except  the  pious  Moravian,  who  remained  calm  and  engaged  in  fervent 
prayer.  He  cheered  the  dismayed  sailors,  having  confidence  that  the  Lord 
would  save  them.  In  a  few  hours  they  safely  entered  the  desired  harbor."* 
This  incident  produced  a  marked  effect  on  Garrison,  and  ultimately  led 
to  his  joining  the  '•  United  Brethren."'  In  1738  he  met  Count  Zinzendorf 
at  St.  Thomas,  and  entertained  him  at  his  home  on  Staten  Island  in  174.3. 
He  was  several  times  taken  prisoner  by  Spanish  or  Prencli  cruisers,  suffer- 
ing much  hardship.  Returning  to  Staten  Island  in  1748,  on  .September  8 
of  that  year  he  sailed  in  command  of  the  Snow  Irene,  on  her  first  voyage, 
she  having  been  built  by  the  Brethren  "for  the  more  easy  conveyance  of 
their  colonists  to  the  American  settlements."!  ''In  1749  she  carried  a  large 
colony  from  London,  and  conveyed  some  Clreenlanders  back  to  their  own 
country.  From  that  time  on  she  performed  four  voyages  almost  even- 
year  between  London  and  New  York,  being  a  good  sailor  and  easily 
freighted.":}:  '-In  175-3  she  sailed  with  forty,  and  in  1754  twice  with 
upward  of  ninety  Brethren  and  Sisters  for  the  colonies  and  missions  in 
America. "jj  She  met  with  a  strangely  tragic  fate  for  a  vessel  employed 
on  so  peaceful  a  mission.  •'  In  November,  1757,  on  a  voyage  from  New 
York  to  London,  slie  was  taken  by  a  French  privateer,  and  sent  for  Cape 
Breton  :  but,  on  the  12th  of  .January,  1758.  she  was  cast  away.  The  crew 
took  to  their  boat,  but  were  ovei-set  ))y  the  waves.  However,  they  ail 
escaped  to  shore,  (hough  with  tlie  utmost  hazard  of  their  lives.  Being 
thrown  upon  a  desert  coast,  they  were  obliged  to  work  their  way.  witii 
great  toil  and  peril,  through  snow  and  ice,  foi-  seventy  miles,  till  they  came 
to  Louislnirgh.  The  prisoners,  among  whom  were  some  Brethren,  were 
carried  to  Brest.  Having  endured  much  hardship  and  distress,  both  tit 
sea  and  on  land,  among  a  number  of  other  prisoners,  they  at  last  were 
exchanged.''!  Captain  Garrison  had  left  the  Irene  in  1755,  in  favor  of 
his  mate.  Christian  .Jacobson,  and  had  gone  to  Germany  in  the  interest  of 
the  Brethren,  in  whose  behalf  he  subs-'quently  visited  Holland,  and  Dutcli 
Guiana,  whence  he  returned  to  Germany,  settliTig  at  Neissc,  in  Prussiiiu 
Silesia.  In  1768  he  came  back  to  America,  making  his  home  thencefoi-- 
ward  at  Bethlehem.  Penn..  where  lie  died  in  1781.** 

It  might  be  added  that  the  nautical  dictionaries  define  a  '"snow  "  to  \)o 
i\  ••brig-rigged  vessel,  with  a  driver  (or  try-sail)  bent  on  rings  to  a  supple- 
mentary mast  just  abaft  the  main-mast."     It  resembles  a  bark. 


*  The  Earliest  Churches  uf  New  York  and  its  Vicinity,  by  Gabriel  P.  Disusway. 
A.  M.,  New  York,  lsa->,  207. 

t  The  Ancient  and  .Modern  History  ol'  the  Brethren,  by  David  Cranz.  translated 
by  Benjamin  La  Trobe,  London,  1780.  :iiM). 

X  lb.,  47S. 

Sib..  41G. 

lib..  478. 

**Ib..  47S,  IS.-,:  Annals  of  Stat-n  Island,  b-  .J.  .1,  Chile.  New  Yoilc.  isv;.  :;')|-(;. 


62  JOSIAH     HORNBLOWER. 


XoTE  C,  PxiiE  53. —  The  name  '-  BelleriUe''  adopted. 

The  following  documeul.  found  among  the  papers  of  .losiah  Hornblower, 
indicates  his  prominence  in  the  little  community,  and  is  of  some  local 
interest  besides: 

"  At  a  general  meeting  of  the  inhabitants  of  Second  River  and  its  vicinity  on  Sat- 
urday the  24th  June  inst..at  the  house  of  John  Rj-erson.  (agreeably  to  advertise- 
ment, for  the  piu-pose  of  giving  a  name  to  the  said  place, 

' '  JOSIAH  HORNBLOWER  in  the  chair— 

"It  was  Resolved.  That  the  name  Second  River  is  improper  and  inconsistent,  as 
it  originally  applied  to  the  brook  and  not  to  the  village,  and  therefore  that  some 
name  more  applicable  be  now  chosen. 

"2.  Resolved,  That  the  whole  district  commonly  known  and  called  by  the  name 
of  Second  River,  which  generally  includes  the  villages  of  Povershon,  Newtown, 
&e..  be  hereafter  known  only  by  the  name  of  Washhigton. 

"  By  order  of  the  meeting.  Joseph  Hornblowkr.  Clerk." 

Oil  the  otlier  side  of  the  .>ame  sheet  is  the  following: 

"  We,  the  sub.scribers.  inhabitants  and  freeholders  living  near  the  bridge  at  the 
village  commonly  called  Second  River,  but  now  called  Washington,  comprehending 
the  district  of  Newtown.  Povershon.  &c.,  apprehending  that  many  inconveniencies 
would  arise  from  the  want  of  a  name  to  distinguish  the  said  village,  when  particu- 
larly alluded  to.  do  therefore 

^'Resolve.  To  distinguish  the  said  village  (when  alluded  to  separately  from  the 
district  comprehending  Washington)  by  the  name  of  Belleville. 

"  Monday,  June  26,  1797."  (Signed  by  Josiah  Hornblower  and  38  others,  including 
WiUiam,  James  and  Jonathan  Hornblower.) 


APPENDIX  11. 


Genealogy  of  the  Hokxi'.luwer  Family/'^ 
JOSEPH    HORNBLOWER,    b.    1G9(k  d.    1762;  in.    Rebecca 


Some  mention  has  been  made  of  this  early  engineer,  in  the  preceding 
pages.  Additional  particulars  of  his  career  may  be  found  in  "  Yesterday 
and  To-day,"'  by  his  talented  great -grandson.  Cyrus  Redding.  Mr,  Horn- 
blower's  seal  was  a  representation  of  the  (pieer,  high,  peak-roofed  engine- 
house  of  his  day,  with  one  arm  of  the  engine's  walking-beam  projecting 
from  one  end.  He  is  said  to  have  had  twelve  children.  The  following  is 
a  list  so  far  as  ascertained : 

I.  Jonathan.!).   1717;  d.  Dec.  7,  1780.     An  eminent  engineer,  who 

established  himself  in  Cornwall  about  1745. 
11.  Josiah,  d.  in  infancy. 

in.  Joseph,  d.  1781.     He  was  also  an  engineer.     Issue:  six  children. 
IV.  Josiah.  b.  Feb.  23,  172!);  d.  Jan.  21,  1809,  at  Belleville. 
V.  Joanna,  d.  1757. 

Mr.  Hornblower  married  a  second  time.     Children: 
VI.  Joshua,  d.  unm. 

VII.  Jabez,  who  had  three  children ;  all  died  young. 
VIII.  James,  d.  unm. 
IX.  Isaac,  b.  1744;  d.  1818. 
Jonathan  m.    Ann,    dan.    of   Thomas  Carter,  a  lawyer   of  some  emi- 
nence, of  Brosely  in  Shropshire,  England,  and  had  the  following  children, 
to  whom  he  gave  names,  as  his  father  had  done,  beginning  with  J : 

I.  Jabez  Carter,  b.  May  21,  1744;  d.  July,  1814.     An  eminent  en- 
gineer, of  whom  a  sketch   is  given  by  Judge  Bradley,  intro- 
ductory to  the  reprint  of  his  article  on  steam-engines,  i-ef erred 
to  above. 
It.  Jethro.  b.  July  16,  1740;  d.  Jan.  1,  1820.  • 

III.  Joanna,  b.   Nov.  24,  1747;  d.  Aug.,  i813;  m.    he  Rev.  Robert 

Redding  (who  d.  1807),  and  was  the  mother  of  Cyrus  Red- 
ding, editor  (with  Thomas  Campbell)  of  the  New  Monfhhj 
Magazine,  and  author  of  vai'ious  works. 

IV.  Jesse,"  b.  July  3,  1749:  d.  Dec.  29,  1822. 
V.  Jemima,  b.  .Jan.,  1751;  d.  1754. 

VI.  .lonathan,  Jr..  b.  July  5.  1753;  d.   Feb..    1815.     The   eminent 
engineer  whose  work  is  noticed  in  the  preceding  pages. 


*  For  the  following  lists  of  the  children  of  Joseph,  of  Jonathan  and  of  Josiah 
H oniblow.^r,  the  writer  is  indebted  to  Mr.  Justice  Bradley.  The  data  as  to  the  sub" 
sequent  generations  have  been  obtained  from  various  sources. 


64  HORXBLOWEK    GEJfEALOGY. 


VII.  Joseph,  b.  Feb.  17,  1755:  d. 


VIII.  Jemima,  b.  March  5,  1757:  d.  Feb.,  1790;  m.  Trestrail. 

IX.  Julia,  b.  Dec.  26,  1758;  d.   Aug.,  1800.     She  m.  the  Rev.  John 
Moyle,  and   had  a  dau.  Julianna,  who   m.  her  cousin,  Cyrus 
Rt>dding,  mentioned  above. 
X.  Jccholia,  b.  Oct.  2,  1760;  d.  Nov.,  1843. 
XI.  Jedida.  b.  Oct.  4,  1764;  d.  Sept.,  1812:  m.  James  Milford. 
XII.  Jerusha,  b.  1767:  d.  May,  1823. 
XIII.  Josiah.  b.  1769;  d.  Sept.,  1795. 


Descendants  of  Josiah  Hornblower. 

JOSIAH  HOKNBLOWEK,  b.  Feb.  23.  1729;  d.  Jan.  21.  1809;  m.  1755, 
Elizal)eth,  dau.  of  Col.  William  Kingsland  and  Margaretta  Cocrten,*  of 
Xew  Barbadoes  Neck,  Bergen  County.  N.  J,      Children: 
I.  Joseph,  b.    1756:  studied  medicine  in  New   Brunswick.   N.   J.,   witli 

Dr.  Lewis  Duiiliam ;  d.  1777,  without  issue. 
II.   Margaretta.  b.  1758:  d.  Dec.  29.  1825:  m.  James  H.    Kiii.    merchant, 
of  New  York.     Children: 

1.  Henry,  d.  !«t.  two  days. 

2.  Eliza,' b.  March,  1781 ;  d.  Nov.  17,1805;  m.  1800.  John  ArenI 

Schuyler,  of  New  Barbadoes  Neck.  b.  April  12.  1779.  son  of 
Arent  J.,  son  ol  Col.  John  Schuyler.     He  m.  2d.  Catharine 


*  Some  account  has  been  ^iven  above  of  the  maternal  ancestry  of  Mrs.  Josiah 
Hornblower.  Her  grandmother,  Elizabeth  De  Kiemer.was  the  daughter  of  Huyliert 
De  Riemer.  who  was  the  third  child  of  Isaac  De  Riemer  and  Elizabeth  firevenraet. 
whose  children  were: 

i.  Margaret,  m.  Cornells  Steeuwyck,  Mayor  of  New  York,  l(>S-'-3,  and  one  of 
the  wealthiest  and  most  influential  merchants  of  the  city.  He  (Ued  in 
Hi84.  She  in.  -.'d.  Dominie  Henricns  Selyns.  pastor  of  the  N.Y.Dutch 
("hurch.  Shesnrvived  both  husbands,  dying  in  IVll.  leavinga  large e.state 
to  her  nephews  and  nieces,  and  making  Henricns  Coerten.  whom,  hei- 
niece,  Ehuabeth  De  Riemer,  one  of  tier  executors, 
ii.  Pieter.  b.  164:^;  had  a  son.  Isaac,  Mayor  of  New  Yoi-k  in  17(iO.  and  Shi-i-iff  in 

1701-2. 
iii.  Huybert.  joined  tlie  Dutch  Chunh,  X.  Y..  KiTl :  d.  at  Meuse.  France:  was  a 

naval  surgeon:  m.  ("atharme .     Issue:  1.  Isaac:  •-'.  Klizabetli. 

iv.  Macditelt.  .ioined  the  Dutch  Church.  N.  Y..  1iiS->:  m.  Nicholas  (iouverneur.  of 

France,  a  prominent  merchant  of  New  York,  though  spending  most  of 

his  time   in   France  oi-  Holland:  he  was  the  founder  of  the  Gouvcrnenr 

family   of  New  Y'ork.     Issue:  !.   Al)raham:  -•.  Isaac.  Abraliam  m.  Mary 

Milborne.  wid.  of  .lacob  Milborne.   and   dau.  of  .lacob   Leisler,  the  two 

unfortunate  leaders  of  Leisler"s  usnrpati<jn  in  New  York  in  UiS'-'.     Isaac 

was  the  father  of  the  (ionvernem-s  of  Newark.  X.  . J.— Nicholas,  Samuel 

and  Isaac. 

Elizabeth  ( Lysbeth )  Grevenraet  was  one  of  the  most  notable  w(  imcn  of  her  time  in 

New  York.    She  m.  2d.  Elbert  Elbertszen:  and  ;W,   1(;5!).  Dominie  Samuel  Drisius. 

pastor  of  the  Dutch  Church;  slie  d.  1087.— .Vofcs  i,f  Jailfjc  BradUij:  -V-  !'•  <ren.  ft- 

Biog.  Rec.  April.  1870.  (50-;i:  do.,  .lanuary,  1878,  :iS:  Valentines  N.  Y.  Manual.  IS.")."), 

.-)38:  do.,  18«->,  770;  do.,  1804.  .W), 


HORNBLOWEK    <U<mEALOGY.  65 

dau.  of  Robert  Van  Kennselaer.  and  d.  Oct.  12,  1817.  Chil- 
dren of  John  A.  Schuyler  and  Eliza  Kip: 

i.  Arent  Henry,  b.  Nov.  35,  1801;  d.  May  19,  1878;  in. 
April  24,  1828,  Mary  Caroline  Kingsland,  dau.  of 
Plenry  W.  Kingsland,  b.  June  21,  1804;  she  is  still 
li\ing.  Their  children  were:  I.  Henry  Kingsland, 
b.  March  5,  1829;  II.  John  Arent,  b.  Feb.  19,  18:31: 
d.  June  15,  1870;  III.  Smith  Anderson,  b.  Nov.  18, 
1832;  d.  July  20,  1870:  IV.  Edwin  Nesbitt,  b.  Jime 
15,  1834;  d.  Sept.  13,1835;  V.  Harriet  Anderson, 
b.  Ang.  29,  1830;  d.  Feb.  17,  1882;  VI.  Sarah 
Janncey,  b.  June  22,  1838;  VII.  Arent  Henry,  b. 
Aug.  8,  1840;  d.  Sept.  20,  1863;  VIIl.  Richards 
Kingsland,  b.  June  24.  1842;  IX.  Mary  Caroline, 
b.  Feb.  16,  1845;  d.  Aug.  9,  1845;  X.  Catherine 
Gertrude,  b.  Aug.  17.  1846;  d.  Sept.  16,  1866. 
ii.  Harriet  Ann,  b.  Jan.  31,  1803;  is  still  living;  m,  Dec. 
19,  1822,  Smith  W.  Anderson,  New  York,  b.  Oct.  24, 
1794 ;  d.  Nov.  15, 1851.  Children :  I.  John  Schuyler, 
b.  Sept.  21,  1823;  II.  James,  b.  Dec.  8,  1825;  III 
Helen  Margaretta,  b.  Oct.  11,  1827;  IV.  Harriet 
Schuyler,  b.  Nov.  8,  1829;  d.  Nov.  19,  1873;  V. 
Hannah  Matilda,  b.  Jan.  15,  1832:  VI.  Catharine 
Schuyler,  b.  Feb.  12,  1834;  VII.  Smith  Weeks,  b. 
May  30,  1838;  VIIL  Angelina  Schuyler,  b.  May  5, 
1840.  There  are  thirteen  grandchildren  living,  of 
Harriet  Ann  and  Smith  W.  Anderson. 

3.  Caroline,  d.  young. 

4.  Henry,  d.  without  issue. 

5.  Josiah.  d.  without  issue. 

6.  Harriet  Jones,  b.  Jan.  1,1788;  d.  Aug.  28,  1866;  m.  May  12, 

1809,  Benjamin  Ludlow  Day,  of  Chatham,  son  of  Col.  Israel 
Day  and  Elizabeth,  dau.  of  Col.  Cornelius  Ludlow,  of  Long 
Hill,  Morris  County,  N.  J.;  he  was  b.  March  22,  1787;  d. 
March  13,  1822.     trnildren: 

i.   Margaretta,  b.  April  16,  1810:  d.  Sept.  24,   1863;   m. 

William  Henry  Field, 
ii.  Israel  Ludlow,  b.  April  14,  1814;  d.  Nov.  22,  183(). 
iii.  Eliza  Schuyler,  b.  Sept.  18,  1816;  d.  June  22,  1858: 
m.  Jan.  10,  1839,  Geo.  W.  Campbell,  of  Millbui-n, 
N.  J.,  b.  Jan.  10,  1814.  Children:  1.  Euphemia 
b.  Oct.  29,  1839;  m.  (by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Williams,  of 
Orange,  N.  J.)  Sept.  24, 1861.  to  Samuel  G.  Borrowe, 
of  N.  Y.  (Issue:  1.  Effie  Beekman,  b.  Jan.  27, 
1863;  2.  Ilallet  Alsop,  b.  April  1,  1864;  3.  Jeannie 
Campbell,    b.   July   2,    1867;  4.  Beekman    Kip,   b. 


6G  HORNBLOWER    GENEALOGY. 

Sept.  20,  1869.)  IT.  Oatharine.  b.  May  20.  1841:111. 
Samuel,  b.  Jan.  8,  1843:  m.  Frances  Motl.  grand- 
dan,  of  Dr.  Valentine  Mott,  of  N.  Y.  city.  (Issue: 
1.  Samuel  Alexander:  2.  Eliza  Day:  -3.  Fannie 
Mott:  4.  George  W.)  TV.  Hari-iet  Kip.  b.  Sept.  10, 
1845;  V.  I.udiow  Day.  b.  Nov.  15.  184G  ;  d.  Oct., 
1876;  VI.  George  W..  b.  March  6,  1848:  m.  Anna, 
dau.  of  Gen.  William  N.  Grier,  of  the  U.  S.  Army. 
(Issue:  1.  Eliza  Schuyler,  b.  Sept.  12,  1873:  2, 
Grier,  b.  Aug.  31,  1875;  3.  Duyckinek,  b.  Nov,  27. 
1877;  4.  George  Wright,  b.  Jan.  25,  1881.)  VII. 
Moses  T.,  b.  Marcli  26.  1849:  VIII.  Eliza  Schuy- 
er,  b.  Dee.  1,  1851 :  IX.  Helen,  b.  P\b.  3,  1857. 
(George  W.  Campbell,  Sr.,  m.  2d,  Oct.  30,  1860, 
Virginia  Watson,  and  had  issue:  X.  Jane  Allen,  b. 
June  25.  1802:  XI.  Allen  Watson,  b.  Jan.  11.  1807.) 
iv.  Helen  Kip,  h.  Oct.  10.  1818:  d.  Feb.  11,  1850. 
7!  Charles,  d.  without  issue. 

8.  Helen,  b.    June   15,    1798:  d.  Aug.,   1820:  m.  1820.  Abel    T. 

Anderson,  a  lawyer  of  New  York.     Children : 

i.  James  Kip,  b.  June  18,  1823;  dec;  a  civil    engineer, 
of  New  Yoi'k;  m.  IlaiTiet  B..  duu.  of  Col.  Dall.  of 
Maryland, 
ii.  Eliza,  b.  1821;  m.  Bishop  Kerfool.  of  Pittsburgh.  Pa., 
whom  she  survives. 

9.  William,  d.  without  issue. 
10.  .Tames,  d.  withoui  issue. 

III.  William,  b.  1759;  d.  1705,  of  malignant  sore  tiiroat  or  scarlet  lever, 

IV.  James,  b.  1761;  d,  March  31,  1843;  in.  April  5,  1796,  Hannah  Crane, 

who  d,  Feb.  7,  1823.     Children: 

1.  William,  b.  July  13.  1797:  d.  Sept.  13,  1801. 

2.  Eliza  Christiana.  li.  Sept.  25,  1799:  d.  Oct.  17.  1859:  m.  Jnly 

27,  1820,  William  Stephens,  of  Belie\ille,  who  d.  Dec.  27, 
1872.     Child  i-cn : 

i.   Hannah  Elizabeth,  1).  June  9,  1821 :  d.  ,Ian.  9,  1835. 

ii.  William  Hornblower.  b.  July  14.  1823;  now  ■  post- 
master at  Belleville.  He  m.  Sept.  29.  1853.  Mary 
Ann,  dan  of  John  Walsh,  of  Belleville:  she  was  b. 
Aug.  27,  1830.  Issue:  I.  Robert  Law,  b.  July  9, 
1854:  d.  Nov.  28,  1855;  IT.  William  Alfred,  b.  Oct. 
24,  1855;  III.  Albert  Henry,  b.  Jan.  28.  1858:  IV. 
Joseph  Hornblower,  b.  Jan.  12,  1861. 

iii.   l^ebecca  Williamson,  b.  May  7,  1828:  d.  Nov.  27,  1836. 

iv.  Maria  Louisa,  b.  July  12,  1839;  d.  Aug.  16,  1839. 

V.  Sarah  Ann,  b.  Jnlv  26.  1842:  d.  Aug.  9.  1S43. 


HORNBLOWER    GEXEALOGY.  fi? 

V.    Rebecca,  h.  1762.     t  Both  died  of  malij^nant  sore  lliroat  or   scarlet 

,-      fever,    with    their  brother    William    (III),  in 
VT.   Klizabeth.  b.  1704.  '      17()0. 
Vrr.   William,  b.  1705:  d.  1709,  without  issue;  m.  his  cousin,  Mari,^aret 
Kiugsland,  b.  Marcli  2G,  1773,  dau.  of  Edmund  William  Kiiiiis- 
land;  she  m.  2d,  Charles  Trinder. 
Vin.  .losiah.  I).  May  23,   1767:  d.  May  6,   1848.     "He  studied  medicine 
with  Dr.  Thomas  Steele,  of  Belleville,  and  be^an  pi-actice  at  Ber- 
i;en  in  1789,  his  field  of  practice  extending  over  all  of  what  is  now 
Hudson   County,  old  Hackensack  Township  in  Bergen  County, 
and  fre([uently  crossing  the  Kill  van  Kull  to  the  noi-therly  end  of 
Statcn  Island;  from  1789  to  1807  he  was  one  of  'out  two  or  three 
physicians  resident  within  that  district:  in  the  war  of  1812.  he 
was  appointed  a  surgeon,  and  assigned  to  duty  at  the  old  Arsenal 
on  I  he  Heights.     He  continued  in  active  service  till  1844." — His- 
fon/  of  Mpdicinf   in   New  Jpi'-hi'ji.  and  of  ifa    Mi'dirn/    Men,  by 
Stephen    Wickes,  AM.,  M.D.,  Newark,  1879.  286-7.     Dr.  Horn- 
blower  ni.  Dec.  4,  1791,  Annetje  (Anna)  Merselis  (dau.  of  Merselis 
Mer.selis  and    Elisabet  Vliereboom).  who   was  b.  Nov.  25,  1773: 
d,  Dec.  21,  1832;  m.  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Lynn,  of  N.  Y.     Children: 

1.  Josiah,  b.  Aug.   7.  1792;  d.  Jan.  23,  1824;  was  a  physician 

at  Bergen :ni.  Oct.  15,  1812  (by  the  Rev.  John  Corneli- 
son).  Hannah  Town.  1).  Nov.  22,  1791;  she  survived  him 
and  m.  2d,  Benjamin  Stagg,  b.  Feb.  11,  1787,  son  of  John 
Stagg,  b.  in  New  York,  1732.— X  Y.  (ri-ti.  ami  Biog. 
Rec,  April,  1878.  Children  of  Josiuh  (3d)  and  Ilaniudi 
Town : 

i.  Anna   Elizabeth,  b.  .\ug.   21,  1813;  m.   Dr.  Edwin 

Webb,  of  Hempstead,  L.  1. 
ii.  Caroline  Town,  b.  March  18,  1815;  m.  .lolin  Stagg, 
.  son  of  Benjamin  Stagg  (her  mother's  2d  husband), 
iii.  Josiah   Heniy,  b.  Jan.  3.  1817;  d.  March  29,  1879; 
m.  June  23,  1846,  :\laria,  dau.  of  Eli  Morgan,  of 
Bethel,  Conn.:  she  was  b.  Sept.  2,  1819.     Issue: 
I.  Anna  Stagg,  h.  Jan.  3.  1848;  m.  Nov.  30,  1871, 
George  B.  Benjamin.  Jr.,  of  Danbury.  Conn.,  and 
had  two  children :  1.  Anna,  b.  April  10.  1874:  2. 
George,  b.  Sept.  7,  1875:  both  dec. 
iv.  John  Town,  b.  Oct.  10,  1819;  d.  Nov.  5,  183:5. 

2.  Elizabeth,  b.  Dec.  28,  1793;  d.   -Alay  28,  1844;  m.  Ocl.  15, 

1816,  Dr.  Thomas  Brown  Gautier,  of  Bergen,  b.  July  25, 
1797:  d.  at  Jersey  City,  April  11,  1850.     Children: 

i.  Mary  Brown,  b.  July  26,  1817;  d.  AprU  5,  1850;  m. 
April,  1839,  David  Betts  Wakeman,  and  had  issue; 
I.  Elizabeth  Gautier:  II.  Edmund  D.  Barry;  III. 
Anna:  IV.  Jabez  J.;  V.  Sarah;  VI.  Mary  Caro- 
line. 


68  HOKXBLOWER  GENEALOGY. 

ii.  Josiali  Hornblower.  b.  Nov.  12,  1818:  practiced 
medicine  for  some  year*  in  Jersey  City,  but  sub- 
sequently engaged  in  manufacturing;  ra.  Dec.  10, 
1844,  Mary  Louisa,  dau.  of  Dudley  S.  Gregory, 
and  had  issue:  I.  Dudley  Gregory:  II.  Thomas 
Brown;  III.  Maria  Louisa:  IV.  Josiah  Horn- 
blower  :  V.  Anna  Elizabeth ;  VI.  Charles  Edward ; 
VII.  Clara  Sutton, 
iii.  Thomas,  b.  July  IG.   1820;  m.  May  16,  1855,  Anna 

Robinson,  and  had  issue;  I.  Thomas, 
iv.  Anna  Elizabeth,  b.  March  17,  1822:  unm. 
V.  Francis  Pantar.  b.  April  18,  1824;  m.  Dec.  20.  1860, 
Eliza  Xewkirk.     Issue:    I.   Mary  Elizabeth;    II. 
Annie    Louisa;    III.    Alice    Maud;    IV.    Frank 
Heni-y. 
vi.  William"  Henry,  b.  Jan.  1.  1826. 
vii.  Eugene,  b.  March.  1828 :  d.  Dec.  10,  1848. 
viii.  James  Robert,  b.  Nov.  25,  1830. 
3.  Christiana,  b.  Nov.  10.  1795:  d.  Sept.  2,  1876:  m.  Nov.  13, 
1819,  Dr.  Gasherie  De  Witt,  of  Bergen.     Issue: 

i.  Anna  Maria,  b.  Aug.  29,  1820:  d.  1878:  m.  Cyi-us 

W.  Hartwick.  Issue :  I.  Gasherie  De  Witt, 
ii.  Gasherie,  b.  June  10.  1822:  d.  Nov.  19,  1874,  at 
Geneva,  Switzerland.  He  was  a  public-spirited 
citizen  of  Belle-\ille,  was  a  member  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, and  in  1873  was  an  Honoraiy  JJ.  S.  Com- 
missioner to  the  International  Exposition  at 
Vienna.  He  occupied  at  Belleville  a  j^art  of  the 
old  Hornblower  estate,  calling  his  place  "  Traro," 
after  a  town  in  Cornwall  where  Joseph  Hornblower 
lived  at  one  tune.  He  m.  Oct.  15,  1849,  Jennie 
Ii..  eldest  dau.  of  the  Rev.  John  Dowling,  D.D., 
of  N.  Y.  city;  she  was  b.  June  5,  1830.     Issue: 

1.  Ida  Christiana,  now  Instructor  in  Vassar  Col- 
lege ;  II.  Helen  Maria,  who  graduated  from  the 
Woman's  Medical  College  of  N.  Y.,  May  22,  1879; 
m.  May  22,  1880,  Dr.  J.  G.  Justin,  Professor  in 
Syracuse  University.    (Children:  1.  Joel  De  Witt; 

2.  Jennie  Elizabeth.)  111.  Lilia  Dowling,  artist; 
IV.  Jennie  Josephine;  V.  Gasherie,  merchant; 
VI.  Alice  Cornelia:  VII.  Julia  Dyer;  \^II.  John 
Dowling:  IX.  Elizabeth  Sleeper. 

iii.  Josiah  Hornblower;  lives  at  Orange.  N.  J. 
iv.  Jane  Zabriskie,  unm.,  living  at  Jersey  CUty, 
V.  Joseph  Coertcn  Hornblower,  d.  unm. 
\'i.  Elizabeth  Gasherie,  d.  unm. 


HORXBLOAVER    GEXEALOGY.  69 

vii.  William  Hornblower,  d.  uuiii. 
viii.  Helen  Kingsland,  d.  unm. 
ix.  Louis  Andries,  d.  unm. 
X.  Mary  Gasherie,  d.  unm. 
xi.  James  Henry,  d.  unm. 
Most  of  the  above  died  in  infancy,  or  very  young. 
4.  Henry  Merselis,  b.  Nov.  3,  1797;  d.  Aug.  8,  1814,  witlioul 

issue. 
o.  James  Kip,  b.  Sept.  U,  1806;    d.  June  21,   1828,  without 
issue. 

6.  William  J.  V.   H.,  b.   Oct.  22.   1809:    d.   April  3,   1881: 

studied  medicine,  and  was  graduated  from  College  Physi- 
cians and  Surgeons,  N.  Y.  City,  1831;  m.  Oct.  14,  1835, 
Sarah,  youngest  dau.  of  the  Rev.  James  V.  C.  Romeyn, 
of  Hackensack,  N.  J.;  she  was  b.  Feb.  22,  1814:  d.  May 
8,  1874.     Dr.  Hornblower  dropped  the  middle  initials  of 
his  name  and  called  himself  William,  simply.     Children : 
i.  Josiah,  b.  Sept.  15,  1836;  graduated  from  Univer- 
sity Medical  College,  N.  Y.  City.  1860 ;  a  practic- 
ing physician  in  Jersey  City;    m.  Oct.  14,  1860, 
Ninetta,  eldest  dau.  of  Captain  William  Penning- 
ton,   of  Mays  Landing,   N.  J.,  the  Rev.   J.    0. 
Winner  performing  the  ceremony.     Issue :  I.  Liz- 
zie, b.  1861;  II.  Josiah,  b.  1864;  studying  medi- 
cine; III.  Ninetta,  b.  1870;  IV.  Francis  Gautier, 
b.  1874:  V.  William,  b.  1876. 
ii.  EUzabeth  Oautier,  b.  April  1,  "1838:    m.  June  20, 

1879,  E.  T.  Rogers. 

iii.  Harriet  Stafford,  b.  Feb.  23,  1842;  d.  March  1,  1850. 

iv.  Theodore  Roui'^yn,  b.  June  9.  1845;  graduated  from 

College   Physicians   and   Surgeons.    N.   Y.    City, 

1869;    ni.  Nov.   11,  1870,    Emma   T.    Sherwood, 

who  d.  1871.     Issue:  I.  William,  who  d.  aged  two 

years.     He  m.  2d,  Nov.  8,  1874,  Julia  A.  Nixon. 

V.  William  Ballard,  b.  Jan.  24.  1847:  d.  Oct.  19,  1873. 

vi.  John  W..  b.  Aug.  22,  1849:  m.  Juno  18,  1883,  Mary 

Griffin, 
vii.  Gasherie  L)e  Witt,  b.  March  31.  1852:  d.  Dec.  9.  1864. 

7.  Jane.    b.  Oct.   2,    1811;    d.  May  29,  1843;    m.  Dr.   Pliilip 

Zabriskie,  of  Bergen. 
IX.  .lonallmn,  b.  July  26,  1769;  d.  Oct.  23.  1809,  without  issue.  He 
lived  for  some  years  witli  his  uncle,  James  H.  Kip,  in  New  York, 
doubtless  being  employed  in  his  mercantile  business;  as  early  as 
1793  he  was  engaged  with  his  brother  William  in  carrying  on  the 
store  at  Second  River,  the  firm  being  William  &  J.  Hornblower. 
About  this  lime  he,  for  some  reason  not  now  understood,  changed. 


TO  SORNBLOWER    OEXEALOGY. 

his  name  to  John,  and  was  tliereafter  know.n  by  tliat  name,  al- 
though occasionally  called  Jonathan.     In  his  father's  will  he  is 
called  John. 
X.   Henry  Coerten,  1).  1771;  d.  Sept.  8.  17!J5.  at  Troy,  X.  Y..  of  yellow 

fever,  contracted  at  New  York:  he  was  a  sailor. 
XI.  Christiana,  b.  1775;  d.  Nov.,  1794,  from  the  effects  of  a  contusion 
on  her  head,  received  in  raising  herself  suddenly  against  a  mantel- 
piece. She  is  said  to  have  been  a  most  lovely  and  amiable  girl. 
XII.  Joseph  Coerten.*  b.  May  G.  1777;  d.  June  11,  1864:  studied  law  in 
17.98  witli  David  B.  Ogden,  of  Newark,  and  succeeded  to  his 
business  when  Mr.  Ogden  removed  to  New  York  in  1800,  although 
Mr.  Hornblower  was  not  admitted  to  the  Bar  until  1803.  He  m. 
April  9.  1803.  Mary  Burnet,  dau.  of  Dr.  William  Burnet.  Jun.. 
of  Belleville;  she  d."  Dec.  18,  1836;  hem.  2d,  March  9,  1840,  Mary 
Ann,  dau.  of  Major  John  Kinney,  of  Newark,  N.  J.  Was  Chief- 
Justice  of  New  Jersey  1832-46.  See  "Address  on  the  Life  and 
Character  of  the  Hon.  Joseph  C.  Hornblower,  LL.D.,"  by  the 
Hon.  Richard  S.  Field,  before  the  New  Jersey  Historical  Society, 
Jan.  16,  1865,  Proe.  Soc,  X,  27.  His  children,  all  by  his  first 
wife,  were: 

1.  Joanna  Margaretta.   !>.   Dec.  29,    1804;  d.   April   29.  1874; 

m.  June  27, 1827,  Thomas  BeU,  of  Philadelphia,  merchant, 
who  d.  Aug.  29,  1867.     Issue ; 

i.  Mary,  b.  April,  1828;  d.  1835. 

ii.  Joseph  Coerten,  b.  Nov.,  1829;  d.  Apj'il  14,  1863, 
num.:  he  settled  in  Texas  before  the  war,  and 
either  enlisted  in  or  was  impressed  into  a  Texas 
reginient  in  the  rebel  army,  and  was  killed  in  the 
service. 

iii.  Bertha,  b.  Aug.  14,  1831;  m.  1852.  John  Chajiron,  a 
lawyer  of  Philadelphia,  who  d.  Nov.  32,  1866. 
Issue:  I.  Bertha,  b.  Jan.  15,  1854;  II.  John 
Marie,  b.  Aug.  15,  1856;  HI.  Francis  Stephen,  b. 
May  3,  1861. 

iv.  Edward  Gray.  b.  June  17,  1833:  d.  Dec.  8,  1878. 
unni.:  was  1st  Lieut,  in  5th  N.  Y.  Vols..  Dur- 
yea's  Zouaves,  in  the  War  nl'  tl:c  Rebellion. 

v.  Robert  Chabners.  b,  1835;  d.  1S37. 

2.  Eliza  Schuyler,  b.   Feb.  6,  1806:  d.  Aug.   7,   1862:  m.  the 

Rev.  Mortimer  Talbot.  Cha])lain  V.  S.  Navy  (now  dec). 
Issue : 

i.  Joannn,  m.  Dr.  Charles  Everstield,  Surgeon   V.  S. 
Navy  (now  dec). 


*  Joseph  does  not  seem  to  have  adopted  the  name  "  Coerten"  until  after  his 
brother  Henry's  death.  It  will  be  noticed  that  as  clerk  of  the  Belle-  ille  meeting,  iu 
1797,  he  did  not  use  any  middle  name.    (See  Appendix  I,  Note  C,  ante.) 


HORNKLOWEl!    (iENEALOGY.  71 

■S.  Emily,  b. -laii.  (J,  1808;  d.  Juue21,  1874:  in.  April  11,  1826, 
Col.  Alexander  MeWhorter  Cuniniing,    of  Newark,  after- 
ward of  Princeton,  N.  J. ;  Major  First  New  Jersey  Cavalry 
in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion:  he  d.  July  Ifi.  1870.     Issue: 
i.  Mary,  b.  June.  1828;  unm. 
ii.  Sarah,  h.  1829;  d.  Dec,  1876,  unm. 
iii.  Ricliard   Stockton,  b.  1833;  m.  Aug.,  1865,  Emily, 
dau.  of   Rev.  Heman  Blodgelt.     Issue:  I.  Katha- 
rine, b.  1867;    11.    Alexander   M.,  b.  1872:    III. 
Richard  Stockton,  b.  1873. 
iv.  Emily,  b.  1835;  m.  July   15,  1858,   Rev.  Augu^■.tus 
Brodhcad,   D.D.,  formerly  missionary  to  India, 
now   pastor  1st  Pres.  Church,    Bridgeton,  N.   J. 
Issue:  I.  Claude,  b.  Jan.,  1861;  graduated   from 
Princeton  ( 'ollege,  1883 :  II.  Wilfred,  b.  Aug.  1864. 
V.   Alexander  McWhortci-,  b.  1837 ;  m.  1869,  llarriette, 
ilau.   of  Dr.  Moses  Woodruff,  of  Elizabeth,  N.  J. 
vi.  Rosalie,  b.  June  25,  1841;  m.  April  11,  1866,  Leavitt 
Howe,    of  Princeton,   N.  J.     Issue:  I.  Emily,  b. 
May  1868:  II.   Leavitt,  b.Dec,  1869:  III.  Fisher, 
b.  Nov.,  1871;  IV.  Helen,  b.  Dec.  1875. 
vii.  John  Noble,  b.  1848;  m.  April,  1883,  Mary  ('.,  dau. 
of  Wm.  Annin,   lawyer,  who  m.  Miss  Edwards,  a 
descendant  of  Jonathan  Edwards. 
4.  Harriette   Burnet,   b.  Sept.  2,  1810:   d.  April  5,  1868:    m. 
Nov.  4,  1835.  the    Hon.  Lewis  B.  Woodruff,  h.  ,lune   19. 
1809;  d.  Sept.  10,  1875.     He  was  Judge  Court  of  Common 
Pleas,  N.  Y.,  1850-55.;  Judge  Superior  Court.  N.  Y.  City. 
1856-61;  Judge  Court  of  Appeals,  N.  Y.   State,   1868-9; 
and  U.  S.  Circuit  Judge  for  the  Second  Judicial  Circuit, 
comprising  New  York,  Conn,  and  Vt.,    1870-75.     Issue: 
i.  Charles   Hornblowei-,    b.   Oct.   1,    1836:  grad.   Yale 
Coll.,  1858;  a  lawyer  of  New  York;  m.  June  30, 
1863,  Katharine   G.  L.,    eldest   dau.  of  Wm.  E. 
Sanford.  of  New  Haven,  Conn.     Issue:  I.  infant 
son.  b.   Marcli    7.    1866;  d.  same  day;  II.  Lewis 
Bartholomew,    h.    Jan.    1.    1868:    III.  Frederick 
Sanford,   b.    (M.   21,   1869;    IV.   Charles    Horn- 
blower,   b.  April    13.  1872;  V.  Edward  Seymour, 
b.  Dec.  23,  1876. 
ii.  Morris,  b.  July  30,  1838 :  a  merchant  of  New  York ; 
m.  Oct.  3,  1863,   Juliette   A.,  dau.  of  George  W. 
Lane,  a  New  York  merchant  (now  President  of  N. 
Y.  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  member  of  A(iue- 
duct    Commission).     Issue:  I.  Harriette  Burnet, 
b.  Julv23.  1864:  II.  Nellie  Lane.  b.  Nov.  5,  1867; 


72  HORNBLOWER    GEI^EALOGY, 

III.  Morris,  b.  May  33,  1870:  TV.  George  Wil- 
liam Lane,  b.  May  12,  1874. 
iii.  Mary  Burnet,  b.  June  27,  1842;  m.  Feb.  21,  1871. 
Courtlandt  G.  Babcoek,  of  New  York,  now  of 
Stoninsiton,  Conn.  (Brev.  Lieut.  Col.  U.  S.  Vols., 
in  War  of  Rebellion).  Issue :  [.  Lewis  Woodruff, 
b.  Dec,  1871;  d.  July,  1872;  II.  Harriette  Bur- 
net; III.  Harry  Woodruff ;  IV.  Courtlandt  Wood- 
ruff, b.  Aug.  30.  1882. 

5.  Charles  Williamson,  b.  Oct.  14,  1812:  m.  Arabella  Smith,  of 

Salem.  N.  J.     Children: 
i.  Thomas  Jones. 
ii.  Joseph  Coerten. 
iii.  Mary  Burnet,  m.  Samuel  xMleii. 
iv.  Samuel  Clement. 
V.  Augustus  Smith. 
vi.  Martha  Smith. 

6.  Caroline  Burnet,  b.  Aug.  14,  1814;  num. 

7.  Mary,  b.  July  28,  1816;  m.  Oct.  23,  1844,  the  Plon.  Joseph 

P.  Bradley,  of  Newark,  noAv  of  Washington,  I).  C,  Jus- 
tice of  the  Supieme  Court  of  the  United  States.     Children : 
i.  Mary,  m.  Henry  V.  Butler,  paper  manufacturer,  of 

Paterson,   N.J.     Issue:   I.    Mary.   b.  March   9. 

1874;  II.  Julia;  III.   Henry  V. 
ii.  Caroline,  unm. 
iii.  Joseph  II.,  d.  1854,  set.  5  years, 
iv.  Harriette,  d.  1856,  set.  5  years. 
V.   William  ITornblowcr,  a  lawyer  of  Newark,  N.  J. ;  m. 

Eliza  iM.,  eldest  dau.  of  the  Hon.  Donald  Cameron, 

U.   S.    Senator    from  Pennsylvania.      Issue:    I. 

Joseph  Gardiner, 
vi.  Charles,  m.  April  12,  1882,  Julie  E.,  dau.  of  Robert 

F.  Ballantiiie,  of  Newark,  N.  J.    Issue:  I.  Charles 

Burnet,  b.  April  15,  1883. 
vii.  Joseph  Richard,  d.  yoimg. 

8.  William  Plenry,  b.  March  21,  1820:  d.  July  16,  1883;  grad- 

uated from  Princeton  College,  1838,  and  from  Princeton 
Theological  Seminary,  1843;  ordained  to  the  ministry 
and  installed  pastor  of  First  Pres.  Church.  Paterson.  Jan. 
30,  1844;  resigned  in  Oct.,  1871,  to  accept  Professor- 
ship of  Sacred  Rhetoric,  Pastoral  Theology  and  Church 
Government  in  the  Western  Theological  Senunary,  Alle- 
gheny City,  Pa.,  which  he  filled  imtil  his  death.  He 
m.  June  17,  1840,  Matilda  Butler,  of  Paterson,  dau.  of 
Asa  Butler,  paper  manufacturer,  of  Suffield,  Conn. 
Children : 


hornblower  gekealogy.  73 

i.  Joseph  Coerten,  b.  March  3,  1848;  graduated  from 
SheflReld  Scientific  School,  Yale  College,  1809;  an 
architect  in  Washington,  D.  C. ;  unm. 

ii,  William  Butler,  b.  May  13,  1851 ;  graduated  from 
Princeton  College.  1871 :  a  lawyer  in  New  York 
city;  m.  April  26,  1882,  Susan,  youngest  dau.  of 
Wm.  E,  San  ford,  of  New  York,  formerly  of  New 
Haven,  Conn.  Issue:  I.  Lewis  Woodruff,  b. 
April  15,  1883. 

iii.  Helen,  b.  Feb.  20,  1857;  unm. 


IN  DEX. 


{JVames  of  authorities  cited,  in  italics. 


Ackerman,  Williain  M.,  53. 
Acquackanonk  Church  Records,  MS.,  27. 
Acquackanonk  patentee,  a,  28. 
Adams,  John,  30,  41.  4J:  Works  of,  41. 
Albanj',  7. 

Alden.  Rev.  Timothy,  7,  ^i,  27.  53-4-5. 
Alexander,  Samuel  Davies,  44. 

Allaire ,  .52;  Allaire  Works,  52. 

Allegheny  City,  Pa.,  72. 

Allen,  Samuel,  72. 

AUinsoiVs  {Samuel)  Laws  of  Neiv  Jersey, 

33. 
Alofsen,  S.,  27;  MSS.  of,  27. 
"American  Register,"'  54. 
Anderson,    Abel    T.— family    of,    66  ;  J. 

Schuyler.    38,  65;  Smith  W.— family 

of,  65. 
Anglesea,  7. 
Annapolis,  47. 

Annin.  Mary  C.— family  of,  71 ;  Wm..  71. 
Arthur.  Wiiliaui,  5. 
Articles  of  Confederation,  36,  45. 


Babcock.  Courtlandt  G.— family  of,  72. 

Baird,  Co!.  Peter,  16. 

Ballantine.  Juhe  E.— family  of,  72;  Rob- 
ert F,.  72. 

Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  52. 

Bancroft.  George,  31t,  40,  41,  46-7-8. 

J9o«f/.s,  Lieut.  Isaac,  Journal  of,  22-3,  29. 

Barber  and  Hotre's  Historical  Collec- 
tions of  New  Jersey,  7. 

Bardsley.  George  Wareing,  5. 

Barnes,  Thomas,  18. 

Basking'  ridge.  New  Jersey,  54. 

Bayard.  Peter.  28;  Petrus,  28;  Rachel,  28. 

Bayards,  Capt.,  27. 

Beatty.  John,  3'J:  letter  from.  44.  49. 

Belcher,  Gov.  Jonathan,  26. 

Bell.  Bertha— family  of,  70;  Thomas- 
do.,  70. 

Belleville,  3,  7,  2:3,  52-3-4-5,  63,  06-7-8,  70; 
manufacturing  at,  51-2,  55  ;  name 
adopted,  62:  water- works  near,  2:3, 
56.     See  "  Second  River."' 

Ben.iamin.  George  C.,  Jr.— family  of,  67. 

Bergen,  07.  69;  county.  67. 

Bergen  Counti/  Deeds,  50. 

Betnel,  Conn.,' 67. 

Bethlehem,  Pa.,  14,  61. 

Biles-Island  lottery,  26. 

Birmingham.  5,  24. 

"  Black  Country."'  3,  4. 

Blac::stone's  Commentaries,  15. 

Blodgett,  Rev.  Heman— family  of,  71. 


Booth,  Mary  L..  22. 

Borrowe,  Samuel  G.— family  of.  65. 

Boudinot,  Mrs.  Elisha,  55. 

Boulton,  Matthew,  5.  6,  51-2,  57,  59,  60, 

Boyd,  Adam,  .37. 

Bradley,  Charles — family  of,  72. 

Bradley,  Hon.  Joseph  P.,  5,  13,  17,  21-2, 

26,  28-9,   49,  50,  51,  .53,  57,  60.  a3-4;— 

family  of,  72. 
Bradley,    William  Homblower  —  family 

of,  72. 
Brest,  61. 

Bridgeton,  New  Jersey,  71. 
Bristol,  8;  brass  and  copper- works,  8,  12, 

16;  manufacturers  and  traders,  8. 
British,  the,  33,  45,  55. 
Brockholst.  Ma.ior  Anthony,  7. 
Brodhead.   Rev.    Dr.    Augustus— family 

of,  71. 
Brosely  in  Shropshire,  63. 
Burke.  Edmund,  60. 
Burnaby,  Rev.  Andreir.  22. 
Burnet,  Mary— fanuly  of,  70:  Gov.  Wil- 
liam, 11;  Mrs.  (Dr.)  William,  .55;  Dr. 

William,  Jr..  70. 
Butler,  Asa.  72:  Henry  V.— family  of,  72; 

Matilda— family  of,  72-3. 


Cadwallader,  Lambert,  38-9.  48. 

Caldwell,  Rev.  James,  .33,  .->4. 

Calley,  John.  4. 

Cameron,  Hon.  Donald,  72;  Eliza  M.— 
family  of,  72. 

Campbell,  Catharine— family  of,  65;  Eu- 
pheniia— do.,  66;  George  W.— do.,  6.")- 
6;  George  AV.,  Jr.— do.,  66;  Thomas 
(the  poet).  63. 

Canada,  25. 

(Jape  Breton,  61. 

Carteret,  Lord,  11. 

Cedars,  road  through  the,  29. 

Centennial  Exposition.  21;  Report  of,  ."2. 

Chacewater,  4. 

Chapron,  John— family  of,  70. 

Charles  XL,  5. 

"Charming  Sally,""  Brig.  14. 

(ihathani,  65. 

Childs,  Thomas,  18. 

Church,  English  (Episcopalian),  at  Belle- 
ville or  Second  River,  26-7;  Reformed 
( I ) utch  1,  at  do. .  3.  27,  .54-5 ;  do.,  at  New 
York,  28,  64;  Baptist,  at  do.,  54:  Pres- 
byterian, at  Bridgeton.  N.  J.,  71 :  do. 
at  Newark,  N.  J.,  54  ;  do.  at  Pater- 
son,  N.  J.,  72;  Trinity,  Newark,  26-7, 54. 


76 


INDEX. 


"  Cincinnahis.''  31-2. 

Clark,  Abraham,  31-3,  37,  43-4-5,  48. 

Clute.J.  j.,m. 

Coal,  Welsh,  duty  on.  5. 

Coerteii,  Barent.  34;  Henry,  34,  64;  Huy- 

bert.  34;  Margaretta.  34,  64. 
(.'Giles,  Christopher,  32. 
Collins,  Isaac.  31-2. 
Common  Prayer-Book,  reported  Dutch 

and  English  impression  of,  27. 
Compound  engine  of   Jonathan    Horn- 
blower,  Jr..  5,  6,  lb,  33;  description 
of,  and  controversy  over,  57-60.    See 
'■  Steam-engine.'" 
Congress.  30,  40,  41.  45. 
Connecticut,  29. 
C'ooAr,  Prof.  George  H.,  10. 
Cooper,  Peter,  52. 
Copper  in  New  Jersey,  8,  9, 10,  11 ;  at  Pat- 

erson,  10. 
Copper  mine  at  Second  River,  7;  discov- 
ery of,  7,  8;  character  and  value  of 
ore,  9,  10,   11,  30;  first  worked,  8,  9; 
exportation  of  ore  from.  8.   13,   16; 
yield  of,  13,  ;M;  visited  by  J^ranklin, 
12;  account  books  of,  16,  17,  18;  man- 
agement  of,   13,  16,  35,  39,  49,  50.  51 ; 
capacity  of  engine  and  pump  at.  31-3 ; 
mentioned  by  travelers,  ■■i:-l-6,  51;  em- 
ployees at.  organized  into  a  military 
company,  35-6 :  leased  to  Josiah  Horn- 
blower  and  others,  29;  abandoned,  30; 
leased  to  "New  Jersey  Copper  Mine 
Association,"  49,  50;  subsequent  op- 
erations at,  51;  depth  of,  51. 
Cornelison.  Rev.  John,  67. 
Cornwall,  3,  4,  5.  ,59,  63,  08. 
Cosby,  Gov.,  15. 
Crane,  Hannah— family  of,  66. 
Cram,  David,  61. 
Crown  lands,  36,  47. 

Cmnming,  Col.  Alexander  McWhorter— 
family  of,  71 ;  Emily— do.,  71 ;  Richard 
Stockton— do.,  71;  Rosalie— do.,  71. 
Dall,  Col.,  of  Md.,  66;  Harriet  B.— family 

of,  06. 
Danbm-y,  Conn..  67. 
Davis,  Elizabeth,  18. 

Day,  Ben.iamin  Ludlow— family  of,  65-6; 
Ehzabetl),  65;  Eliza  Schuyler— family 
of,  65;  Col.  Israel,  ()5. 
Dayton,  Jonathan.  39. 
Dawson.  Henry  B.,  40. 
Decimal  currency  recommended,  41. 
De  Riemer,  Catharine,  34,64;  Elizabeth, 
34,  64;  Huybert.  24,  64;  Isaac,  34,  04; 
Machtelt.  61;  Margaret,  61;  Pieter,  64. 


Desagulicr.  4. 

De  VVitt,  Anna  Maria— family  of.  fiS;  Dr. 
Gasherie— do.,  68;  Gasherie.  of  Belle- 
ville—do  ,  68;  Helen  Maria— do.,  68. 

Dick.  Samuel,  39. 

Dickinson.  Philemon,  33. 

Disosway,  Gabriel  P..  61. 

Dodd,  Daniel,  27,  54. 

Dordrecht,  34. 

Dover,  15. 

Dow,  Wm. ,  30. 

Dowell,  Wm.,  39. 

Dowling.  Jennie  L.— family  of,  68;  Rev. 
Dr.  John,  68. 

Drisius,  Dom.  Samuel,  24,  64. 

Diujham,  Dr.  Lewis,  64. 


Duryea's  Zouaves,  70. 
Dutch  Guiana,  61. 


East  Jer.sey  Proprietors,  motto  of,  31. 
Edinburgh,  15. 
Edwards.  Jonathan,  71 
Elbertszen,  Elbert,  64. 
Electricity  in  disease.  7. 
Eliot,  Jared,  12. 
Elizabethtown,  32-3,  :35,  48,  71. 
Encyclopedia  Britunnica.  6,  .58. 
Engineer,  early  use  of  the  word,  5. 
Engines.— See  "Steam-engines." 
English  Copper  Company,  8. 
English  restrictions  on  American  manu- 
factures, 13,  15. 
Essex  Common  Pleas,  53. 
Essex  County  Deeds,  28,  .50,  51. 
Essex  county  ladies"  committee,  55. 
Eversfleld,  Dr.  Charles.  70. 


Falmouth,  13,  16. 

Federal  capital,  contest  over  location  of, 
37. 

Ferry  at  Second  River,  11,  28,  34-5. 

Field,  Richard  &.,  24,  70. 

Field,  William  Henry,  65. 

Finch,  I.,  .51. 

Finch,  Mr.,  of  Dudley.  24. 

"Fire-engines."— See  "  Steam-engine." 

Finley,  Rev.  Dr.  Robert,  the  wife  of,  54. 

First  .i/ountain,  N.  J.,  11. 

Fcederalist,  the.  40. 

Ford,  Col.,  27. 

Forts  to  resist  Indian  invasion,  25. 

Fouke,  Juda,  29. 

France,  64. 

Franklin,  Benjamin,  13. 

French  and  Indian  war,  25. 

Fulton's  (Robert)  first  successful  steam- 
boat, 53. 


Garrison.  Capt.  Nicholas,  11,  15,  60,  61. 

Gautier,  Francis  Pantar- family  of,  08; 
Jo.siah  Hornblower— do.,  68;  Mary- 
Brown— do.,  67;  Thomas— do..  68;  Dr. 
Thomas— do.,  67. 

Geneva,  Switzerland,  68. 

Germans  at  the  Schuyler  mines,  50. 

German}-,  61. 

Gold  mines  in  New  Jensey,  reported  dis- 
covery of,  11 ;  title  to,  11.  13. 

Go-don,  Thomur,  F..  8,  9,  10,  11,  12,  3.5,  29, 
39.  44,  46,  48. 

Gouverneur,  Abraham,  Isaac,  Nicholas 
and  Samuel,  64. 

Grayson,  W  m.,  40. 

Greenland,  14 

Greenock,  57. 

Gregojy,  Dudley  S.,  68;  Mary  Loui.sa- 
family  of.  6b. 

Grevenraet.  34;  Elizabeth— family  of,  6 J. 

Grier.  Anna— family  of,  66;  Gen.  Wm.  N., 
66. 

Griffin,  Marv,  69. 


Hackensack,  69;   "  militia."  35;  river,  7; 

township,  67. 
Haghoort.  Dom.  Gerard,  37. 
Hall,  Rev.  Dr.  John,  37,  44. 
Hamburgh,  14. 


INJ)EX. 


77 


Hamilton,  Alex.,  39,  40. 

Hancock,  John,  40. 

Hanover,  Morris  county,  !l. 

Hartwick,  C.vrus  W. — family  of,  t)8. 

Hempstead,  L.  I  ,  67. 

Henderson,  Rev.  Matthew  H.,  37. 

Hewitt,  Hon.  Abram  8T,  53;  John,  53. 

Heysham,  Capt.,  14.  1.5. 

Holland,  5,  7,  8,  15,  61,  64. 

Hornblower  account  books,  38-9-3(1 ;  MSS. , 

7,  15,  38,  49. 
Hornblower  genealogy,  63-73. 
Hornblower,  origin  of  name,  4,  5. 
Hornblower,  Charles  Williamson  —family 
of,  73:  Christiana  (De  Witt)-do.,  68; 
(Christiana,  70;  Elizabeth— family  of, 
67  ;  Eliza  Christiana— do  ,  66  ;  Eliza 
Schuyler-  do.,  70;  Emily,  71;  Harri- 
ette  Burnet— family  of,  71-3;  Henry 
Coerten,    70 ;    Henry    Merselis,    69  : 
Isaac,  15,  63;  Jabez,  63;  Jabez  Carter, 
5,63;  James,    53,  63;— family  of,  66; 
James  Kip,  69 ;  Jecholia,64 ;  Jedida,64 ; 
Jemima,  63-4;  Jerusha,  64;  Jesse,  63; 
Jethro,  63;  Joanna,  63;  Joanna  Mar- 
garet—family of,   70  ;  John,   54,  70; 
Jonathan,  5,  13,  54,  63-3.  69,  70;  Jona- 
than, Jr.,  account  of,  5, 6,  63;  his  con- 
troversy with  Boulton  and  Watt,57-60 ; 
Joseph,  account  of,  3,  4,  7,  34,  63,  68; 
family  of,  63-4;  Joseph  Coerten  (Chief 
Justice),  13,  24,  30, 39,  40,  54,  61 ;— fami- 
ly of,  70-3  ;  Joseph  Coerten  (archi- 
tect), 73;  Joshua,  63,  64;  Josiah,  63, 
61;  Dr.  Josiah  (3d)— family  of,  67;  Dr. 
Josiah  (3d)— do.,  67;  Dr.  Josiah  (son 
of  Dr.  William)— do.,  69:  Josiah  Hen- 
ry—do., 67;    Julia,  6i;    Juliana,   64; 
Margaretta,  ;34-5; -family  of,  (>4;  Mary 
—do.,  73;  Rebecca,  63,  67;  Theodore 
Romeyn— family  of,  69 ;  William,  63, 
66-7,  69;  William  Butler— family  of, 
73;  Rev.  Dr.  Wilham  Henry— do.,  69; 
Dr.  William  J.  V.  H.— do.,  69. 
Hornblouter,  Jabez  Carter,  57-8. 
Hornblower.  Jonathan,  Jr.,  59. 
Hornblower,    Josiah  —  inscription    on 
tombstone  of.  3;  birth  and  parentage, 
3;  taken  by  his  brother  to  Cornwall, 
5;  early  education,  6,  "< ;  called  to  take 
a   steam-engine  to    America,  7,   13; 
leaves  home^  13;  arrives  in  New  York, 
14;  stormy  passage,  14,  15;  gets  his 
engine  to'  the  Schuyler  copper  mine, 
16;  ilifflcultiesin  erecting  it,  17;  starts 
up    tlie    engine,   13-30 ;    engaged    to 
superinteiul  engine    and  mines,  3;; 
marries  Elizabeth  Kingsland,  31,  64; 
letter  from  his  father,  34;  manages 
the  works,  35;  commissioned  captain, 
35-6;  takes  up  his  residence  west  of 
the  Passaic  liver,  36;  manager  of  a 
church  lottery.  36-7;  a  Baptist,  37; 
buys  his  future  homestead,  opens  a 
store  and  operates  the  ferry  at  S.!c- 
ond  river,  38;  helps  build  a  school- 
house,  39;  leases  the  mine  property, 
39;  trustee  of  a  road  lottery,  ~9;  «'"'- 
veys  a  road  through  the  cedars,  30; 
takes  part  in  public  affairs,  30;  elect- 
ed to  the  Assembly,  31 ;  his  patriotic 
course  in  that  body,  31-8;  sustains 
the  liberty  of  the  press,  33;  votes  for 
Gov.  Livingston,  33;  re-elected,  and 
chosen  Speaker,  34:  attempts  of  lo- 
ries and  refugees  to  capture  him,  34; 


elected  to  the  Council,  35;  his  legal 
knowledge,  35;  seeks  to  get  the  Fed- 
eral capital  located  in  New  Jersey, 
37;  elected  to  Congress,  38;  how  he 
was  notified  of  his  election,  39;  his 
course  in  Congress,  40-8  ;  favors 
strengthening  the  Union,  42;  Natronal 
regulation  of  Indian  affairs,  43;  the 
decimal  currency,  43;  is  embarrassed 
by  New  Jersey's  action,  43-4;  criti- 
cised by  James  Monroe,  47;  his  gen- 
eral attitude  in  Congress,  48;  in  his 
home  circle,  49;  letter  to  his  niece, 
49 ;  takes  charge  of  the  mine  property 
once  more,  and  rebuilds  the  steam- 
engine,  50;  retires  from  the  superin- 
tendency  ,50 ;  sees  built  the  first  steam- 
engine  made  in  America,  .53;  appoint- 
ed Judge,  53 ;  his  new  house,  and  his 
family  coach,  ,53;  his  personal  appear- 
ance, 5:^-4;  church  affiliations,  54;  let- 
ter on  social  religious  life  in  America, 
.54;  his  death,  55;  his  descendants, 
64-73. 

Hornblower,  Mrs.  Josiah,  her  personal 
appearance,  54;  church  relations,  54; 
a  patriot  during  the  Revolution,  55; 
her  death,  55;  her  ancestry,  64;  her 
descendants,  61-73.  See  "  Kingsland, 
Elizabeth." 

Hornblower,  Rev.  Dr.  William  H.,  53-4. 

Houston.  Wm.  Churchill,  39. 

Howe,  Leavitt — famil.y  of,  71. 

Hudson  county,  67. 

Hudson  river,  a  free  port  on  the  New 
Jersey  shore  of,  suggested,  46. 

Hunter,  Gov.  Robert,  8. 


Indian  affairs,  45. 

Indians,  supposed  to  have  worked  the 
Schuyler  copper  mine,  9;  threatened 
invasion  by,  25 ;  Federal  versus  State 
control  of,  38,  43. 

Ingoldsby,  Lieut.  Gov.  Richard.  34. 

"  Irene,"  the  Snow,  13,  14,  15,  16,  60.  61. 


Jacobson,  (Jhristian,  61. 

Jay,  John,  47. 

Jefferson,  Thomas,  39. 

Jerolaman,  Cornelius,  51. 

Jersey   City,  37,  6r-8-9;  water-works  of. 

33,  56. 
Journals    of   Congress,    37,    40.     13,     16; 

Secret  do.,  47. 
Justin.  Prof.  Dr.  .1.  G.— family  of,  68. 


Kalm,  Brof.  Peter.  9. 

Kerfoot,  Bishop,  66. 

Kid,  John,  39. 

Kill  van  Kull,  67. 

Kingsland  estates.  11.  33. 

Kingsland,  Edmund,  3:i-4.  35;  Edmund 
William,  33,  67;  Elizabeth,  33-1,64;— 
family  of,  61-7:!;  Henry  W..  65;  Mar- 
garet' (i7:  Mary  Caroline,  65:  Col. 
vVilliam,  33-4,  27.  64. 

Kinney,  Major  John,  70;  Mary  Ann,  70. 

Kip,  Eliza— family  of,  64-5;  Harriet  .Tones 
-family  of,  (i5;  Helen— family  of, 
66;  Jarnes  H.,  34-5,  69;-fainily  of, 
64-6;  Margaretta  Hornblower,  :i-l-5;— 
family  of,  64-6. 


INDEX. 


Lamb.  Mrs.  Martha  J..  52. 

Lane.  Greorge  W.,  71 ;  Juliette  A  —family 
of.  71. 

■■  Laurel  Hill'"  estate,  50. 

Lawrence.  Mr..  3(5. 

Lee,  Richard  Henry,  40. 

Leisler.  Jacob.  64. 

Liscomb,  Mrs.  Elizabeth.  53. 

Livingston.  Chancellor  Robert  R..  51-2; 
Gov.  Wm.,  31-2.  41,  48;  Mrs..  5.5. 

Locomotive,  first  successful  American- 
built,  52. 

Lodge.  Henry  Cabot,  41. 

London.  7.  12.  13.  14,  15,  16.  24,  27,  61. 

Long  Hill,  Morris  county,  05. 

Longworth,  Isaac.  27. 

Lords  of  Trade,  8,  10. 

Lottery  for  "  purely  the  Honor  of  God, 
and  the  Good  of  Mankind,"  27;  for 
Trinity  church,  Newark,  26 :  for  Eng- 
lish church  at  Second  River,  26-7;  for 
road  through  the  cedars,  29. 

Louisburgh,  61. 

Lower,  Mark  Antony,  5. 

Lucas's  copper  mine,  11,  28. 

Ludlow,  Col.  Cornelius,  65. 

Lynn.  Rev.  Mr.,  67. 


Macurdy.  Rev.  D.  H.,  27. 

Madison,  James,  41.47-8. 

"Mansion  House,''  29. 

Manufactures  in  America,  English  re- 
strictions on.  12,  15. 

Manuscripts.  —  See  ""  Acquackanonk," 
"  Alorsen,"  "  Homblower." 

Mark,  Jacob,  49.  .50,51. 

Mason  and  Dixon's  line.  47. 

May's  Landing.  N.  J.,  69. 

Meeker.  D.  M..  D.  M.  &  Son.  and  S,  J.,  21. 

Merselis.  Merselis.  67. 

Meuse.  France,  24,  64. 

Mil  borne.  Jacob,  01;  Mary,  04. 

Milford,  James,  61. 

Millburn.  05. 

Miller.  Rev.  Dr.  Samuel,  54. 

Mine-hunting  in  N.  J.,  11.29.  See  "  Cop- 
per." "Gold"  and  "Silver. 

Mines.  MoiTis  county  and  Ringwood,  2H. 

Minutes  of  New  Jersey  Council.  ;i6:  do. 
of  Council  of  Safety,  33;  do.  of  Joint 
Meeting.  38-9,  48,  5;i;  do.  of  Legisla- 
ture, 44. 

Mi.'jsissippi,  the  navigation  of.  41.  40. 

Mitcliill,  Dr  Samuel  L..  10. 

Mompesson,  Roger,  24. 

Monroe.  James,  47-8. 

Montgomerie.  Gov,,  8. 

Moravians,  14,  61. 

Morgan.  Eli.  07. 

Morris  county  mines,  route  to,  28.    . 

JioiTis.  Lewi.^.  15.  16. 

Mott.  Frances— family  of,  66;  Dr.  "Valen- 
tine, 66. 

Mountain  View,  fort  near,  25. 

Mt.  Vernon,  39. 

Moyle.  Rev.  John,  64. 

Mulford.  Dr.  Isaac  S.,  30,  40. 


Neisse,  01. 
Nelson,  William,  7. 
Neverslnk,  10. 

Nev.'arK,  v],  20-7.  54.  C4,  70,  71-2;  bay,  7; 
Mechanics'  Association,  lecture  be- 


fore, 10;  Toum  Records.  30:  water- 
works, 23,  56. 

Neica7-k  Centinel  of  Freedom,  55. 

New  Barbadoes  Neck,  7.  23,  26,  64. 

New  Brunsmck,  N.  J.,  9,  64. 

Newcastle,  Duke  of,  8,  12,  16. 

Newcomen,  Thomas,  .3,  4,  20. 

New  England,  41. 

New  Haven.  10,  71,  73. 

New  Jersey  on  the  Articles  of  Confedera- 
tion. 36;  attempts  nullification,  43,  45. 

New  Jersey  Archives,  8,  11,  12,  15,  16. 

New  Jersev  Copper  Mine  Association, 
49,  50. 

New  Jersey  Gazette,  31-2-3-4,  45. 

New  Jer.sey  Historical  Society,  31.  70; 
Proceedings  of,  7,  17.  22,  31,  47,  49,  .52. 
70:  old  map  in  rooms  of,  25;  motto 
of,  .31. 

New  Jer.sey  Journal.  .33,  35.  .55. 

Neic  Jersey  Revolutionary  Correspond- 
ence of  Executive,  32,  40. 

Newkirk.  Eliza— family  of.  68. 

'•  New  Monthly  Magazme,"  63. 

New  Netherland.  11. 

Newtown,  62. 

New  York.  8,  13.  14,  16,  17,  28-9,  U,  37,  39, 
40,  41,  44-5,  49.  51-2-3,  00. 61.  64-5-6-7-8-9, 
70.  71-2-3:  Baptist  church,  ,54;  Dutch 
chui'ch.  28,  04;  "fire  engine"  at  water- 
works of,  22. 

Neiv  York  Colonial  Documents,  8. 16. 

New  York  Directory  for  1786,  39. 

.Ve)«  York  Gazettc'li,  13,  14,  1.5,  16,  27-8. 

New  York  Genealogical  and  Biograph- 
ical Record,  7,  24,  28,  64,  67. 

New  York  Mercury,  13,  15. 

Nixon.  Julia  A..  69. 

Northern  States,  41,  4;i,  46-7. 

Northwest  Territory,  36,  42-3,  40-7. 

Nova  Scotia,  41. 


(TCallaghan,  Dr.  E.  B..  7,  10.  29. 
Ogden.   David  B.,   70;  Gabriel,   27;   Col. 

Josiah,  27. 
Ohio,  47. 
Orange.  65,  08. 
Osborne.  Gov.,  1.5. 
Oxford,  N.  Y.,  27. 


Paper  money  in  New  Jersey,  48-9. 

Paris.  15,  39. 

Parker.  James.  16. 

Parr,  Wm..  29. 

Passaic  river,  7.  28,  .50. 

Paterson,  72;  copper  mine  at,  10. 

Paterson,  William,  39. 

Pennington.  Nmetta— family  of.  09;  Capt. 
Wm.,  09. 

Pennsylvania,  47.  72. 

Penryn.  .59. 

Pertii  Amboy.  14. 

Philadelphia.  9,  29,  30-7.  50.  51,  70;  water- 
works at,  51  -2. 

Pickering,  Timothy,  10. 

Pierson.  Daniel,  27! 

Pinckney,  Charles.  40,  46, 

Pinhome.  Martha,  Mary  and  William.  24. 

Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  00. 

Plummer,  Thomas.  18. 

"Polacca,"  the  first  New  Jersey  steam- 
boat, 52. 

Polgooth,  4. 


INDEX. 


79 


Political  Magazine,  41. 

Pompton,  7;  river,  7,  35. 

Povershoii,  62. 

Princeton,  44,  71. 

Prussian  Silesia,  61. 

Ramsay,  David,  40. 

Raum,  John  O.,  9. 

Redding,  Ci/rus,  4,  30,  63-4;  Rev.  Robert, 
03. 

Redrutli,  4. 

Richards.  Johin,  27;  Capt.  John.  33. 

RiethmiiUer,  J.  C.  41. 

Riugwood  mines,  route  to,  28. 

Robison,  Dr..  58. 

Ropers,  E.  T.,  69. 

Rogers,  Prof.  Henry  D.,  10. 

Rohde, ,  52. 

Romeyn,  Rev.  .Tames  V.  C,  09;  Sarah- 
family  of,  69. 

Roosevelt,  Nicholas  I.,  49,  50,  51-2. 

"Royal  mines"  in  N.  J.,  title  to,  11,  12. 

Ryerson,  John,  62. 


Sadler,  John,  15,  25. 

Salem,  N.  J..  72. 

Sandy  Hook.  14,  15. 

Sanford,  Katharine  G.  L.— family  of,  71; 
Susan— do.,  73;  \Vm.  E.,  71,  73. 

Savery,  Thomas.  4. 

Schliller,  Johan  Hendrick,  27. 

Schuurman,  James,  18. 

Schuyler,  Adonijah,  29;  Arent,  7, 12,  28-9; 
Arent  H.,  17;— family  of,  65;  Arent 
J.,  :iO,  49,  64;  Eva,  38;  Harriet  Ann- 
family  of,  65;  John  Arent,  64-5;  Col. 
John,  7,  8,  12,  15,  16,  17,  22-3, 25-0-7-8-9, 
49,  04;  Col.  Peter,  25,  29;  Philip  A., 
49,  51 ;  Philip  Pieterse,  7. 

Schuyler  manor-house,  28. 

Schuyler  copper  mines.  See  "Copper 
mine." 

Second  Mountain,  11. 

Second  River.  7,  11,  17,  24,  26-7-8-9,  51,  69; 
ferry  at,  11.  28,  34-5;  English  church 
at,  26-7  :  manufacturing  at,  51-2;  Re- 
formed church  at,  3,  27;  school-house 
at.  29;  name  changed,  62. 

Sedgwick,  Theodore.  Jun..  32,  41,  49, 

Selyns,  Dom.  Henricus,  04. 

Shea.  George,  41. 

Sherwood,  Emma  T.— family  of,  69. 

Silver  mines  in  New  Jersey,  10,  11 ;  title 
to,  11,  12. 

Smallwood, ,  51-2. 

Smiles,  Samuel,  4,  5,  57-8-9.  60. 

Smith,  Adam,  33. 

Smith.  Arabella— family  of,  72;  Benja- 
min, 18. 

Snow,  definition  of  word,  61. 

Snow  "  Irene,  '  13,  14.  15,  16,  61. 

Soho,  in  England,  5,  52;  at  Belleville,  51-2. 

South  Carolina,  46. 

Southern  States,  41,  43.  46-7. 

Spain,  proposed  treaty  with,  41,  46-7. 

Spangenbergh,  Bishop,  11,  60,  61. 

Sparks,  Jared,  12. 

Spier.  Hans.  28;  John  Hendrick,  28. 

Staffordshire,  3,  4. 

Stagg,  Benjamin,  67;  John,  67. 

Staten  Island,  14,  60,  61,  67;  title  to,  37. 

Steam-boat,  first  in  New  Jersey,  51-3; 
John  Stevens's,  .52. 

Steam-engines,  early  character  and  im- 
provements of,  3,  4.  5.  6.  12.  30:  arri- 


val of  first  engine  in  America.  14 ;  de- 
scription of,  18-21 ;  its  co.st.  12,  22 ;  its 
capacity,  31-3;  dimensions  of  half- 
c>linderof,  31,  .51;  damaged  by  fire, 
39;  rebuilt,  49-50;  broken  up,  50.  The 
first  built  in  America,  51-3.  See 
"  Compomid  engine." 

Stearndall,  John,  29. 

Steele,  Dr.  Thomas,  07. 

Steenwyck.  Cornelis,  24,  04. 

St.  John  (New  Brunswick),  41. 

Stephens,  William,  .■',3;- family  of.  66; 
Wm.  Hornblower,  .53;— family  of,  66. 

Steuben,  Gen.  the  Baron,  38. 

Stewart.  Charles.  39. 

Stonington,  Conn.,  73. 

Stryker,  Rev.  Peter.  54. 

St.  Thomas  (West  Indies),  61. 

Suffleld,  Conn.,  72. 

Sussex  Centenary,  35. 

Sweden,  5. 

Symmes,  John  Cleves,  38-9,  47-8. 


Talbot,  Rev.  Mortimer— family  of,  70. 

Taylor,  Rev.  Dr.  BenJ.  C,  27. 

Texas,  70. 

Thomas,  Isaiah,  10. 

Thurston,   Robert  H.,  4,  6,  21,  52,  57,  59, 

60. 
Town,  Hannah— family  of,  67. 
Trenton,  31,  37-8-9.  45,  52. 
Trestrail,  Mr.,  64. 
Trinder.  Charles.  67. 
Trinity  Church,  Newark,  26-7,  54,  70. 
Troy,  N.  Y.,  70. 
Truro,  68. 


Union  township.  Bergen  county,  9. 
United  Brethren,  14.  ()1. 
Ure,  Andrew,  4. 


Vulentine''s  New  York  Manual,  64. 

Van  Baal,  Rachel,  28. 

Van  Courtlandt,  John,  28;  Stephen,  38. 

Van  Emburgh,  John.  21-3.  .50.  51. 

Van  Rennselaer,  Catharine.  03;  Robert, 

04. 
Vienna,  Exposition  at,  68. 
Virginia,  36,  41-3,  47. 
Vliereboom,  Elisabet.  67. 


Wakeman,  David  Betts— family  of,  67. 

Wales,  coal  from,  5. 

Ward,  Josiah,  18. 

Washington  city,  73-3;  contest  over  loca- 
tion of,  37. 

Washington,  George,  on  calumny.  33;  at 
Mt.  Vernon,  39;  on  the  Confedera- 
tion, 41. 

Washington,  name  proposed  for  Second 
River  and  vicinity,  02. 

Watson.  Virginia— family  of.  0(i. 

Watt,  James.  5.  0.  51-3.  .57-8-9.  60, 

Weld,  Isaac.  Jr.,  i).m. 

Wessels.  Christina.  24. 

Wheal  Busy  mine.  4. 

Wheal  Rose  mine.  4. 

Whitehead.  Wm.  A..S.  10.  26,  31. 


80 


INDEi. 


Wickes,  Dr.  Stephen  A.,  A.M.,  44,  67. 

Willard,  Rev.  Joseph,  .'54. 

Williams.  Rev.  Mr.,  65.. 

Wilson^s  (Peter)  Laws  of  New  Jersey,  39. 

Winfield,  Charles  H..  7.  9,  2?-4.  28.  33.  47. 

Winner.  Rev.  J.  O.,  69. 

Winterbotham,  \V.,  9. 

Winwood,  John.  59. 

Wolverhampton.  4. 

Woodbridge.  16. 


Woodruff,  Charles  Hornblower— familj- 
of,  71 ;  Judge  Lewis  B.— do.,  71  ;Mary 
Burnet— do.,  72;  Morris— do.,  71;  Dr. 
Moses,  71. 

Worcester,  Marquis  of,  6. 


Zabriskie,  Dr.  Philip.  69. 
Zinzendorf,  Count,  61. 


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TEXXYSON  NOT  BETTKK  THAN  LONG.ELLO"^. 
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Jil  of  American  writers  with  that  of  foreigners,  Mr. 

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